24 Apr 2018

feedDjango community aggregator: Community blog posts

Beginner's Angular 4|5 Tutorial Series for Django Developers

In the previous tutorial, we've learned how to integrate Angular 4 with Python & Django. This tutorial will be dedicated to how to get started with Angular 4|5. Throughout this beginner's series, you'll learn how you can use Angular 4|5 to build client side web applications for mobile and desktop with a Django backend.

This tutorial is a part of a tutorial series that contains the following tutorials:

Angular 5 has been released (on October 2017) so this tutorial series is updated to reflect any updates. This tutorial will provide you with all of the fundamentals to help you get started quickly developing Angular 5 applications without prior knowledge of Angular.

Angular is a powerful front-end Javascript/TypeScript framework developed by Google. It allows you to build structured client side applications and PWAs(Progressive Web Apps).

Prior knowledge of Angular is not required for this tutorial series but you'll need to have a few requirements:

Angular 4 Features

Angular 4 is available and comes with many improvements and new features such as:

<div *ngIf="ready ; else loading">
    <p>Hello Angular 4</p>
</div>
<ng-template #loading>Still loading</ng-template> 

If the ready variable is false Angular will show the loading template.

You can also assign and use local variables inside both *ngIf and *ngFor expressions, for example:


<div *ngFor="let el of list as users; " >
        { { el } }
</div>

You can find more information on:Angular 4.0.0 now available official Angular blog post and Angular 4.1.0 now available official Angular blog post

Getting Started with Angular 4 / Angular 5

If you want to get started developing Angular 4/5 web applications, you have multiple options:

Before you can install Angular you need to have Node.js and NPM installed on your development machine.

So go ahead and open your terminal and type the following

node -v

If you get the version of an installed Node.js then you already have the platform installed. If the command is unknown by your terminal then you need to install Node.js.

Installing Node.js is easy and straightforward, you just need to visit their official website then grab the installer for your operating system and follow the instructions.

Now if you open your terminal under Linux/MAC or command prompt under Windows and execute

node -v 

You should get an output displaying your Node.js installed version

Updating to Angular 4 from Angular 2

If you have already an Angular 2 project and want to update it to Angular 4, you can do that by simply installing a few npm packages.

Windows

Just copy and paste the following command in your prompt


npm install @angular/common@latest @angular/compiler@latest @angular/compiler-cli@latest @angular/core@latest @angular/forms@latest @angular/http@latest @angular/platform-browser@latest @angular/platform-browser-dynamic@latest @angular/platform-server@latest @angular/router@latest @angular/animations@latest typescript@latest --save

Linux and MAC

Copy and execute this on your terminal

npm install @angular/{common,compiler,compiler-cli,core,forms,http,platform-browser,platform-browser-dynamic,platform-server,router,animations}@latest typescript@latest --save 


Installing the Angular CLI

The Angular CLI is a handy command line utility built by the Angular team to easily and quickly generate new Angular applications and serve them locally. It can also be used to generate different Angular constructs such as components, services and pipes etc.

Before you can use the Angular CLI, you need to install it via npm, so go ahead and open your terminal or your command prompt then simply enter:

npm install -g @angular/cli

To check the version of your installed Angular CLI, type:

ng -v

You can also run ng -v from inside an Angular project to get the version of Angular

Generating an Angular 4 / Angular 5 Project Using the Angular CLI

Using the Angular CLI, you can generate an Angular 4+ project with a few commands, the CLI will take care of generating the project files and install all the required dependencies.

Open your terminal or your command prompt then run:

ng new angular4-project 

After finishing the installation enter:

cd angular4-project 
ng serve 

Your project will be served locally from http://localhost:4200.

Generating an Angular 4 from GitHub Repository

You can also clone a quick-start Angular project from GitHub to generate a new Angular 4 project.

So make sure you have Git installed then run the following:

git clone https://github.com/angular/quickstart  my-proj
cd my-proj
npm install
npm start

You can find more information here.

Angular 5 Features

Angular 5, code named pentagonal-donut, was just released. It has new features and internal changes which make Angular applications faster and smaller. In this section we will go over the most important changes and instructions on how to upgrade your existing Angular 2+ project to latest version.

ng serve --aot

Changes before Upgrading

If you have an existing Angular 2 or Angular 4 project, you need to make sure you apply some changes to your project's source code before you can upgrade to Angular 5. This is the list of changes that need to be done.

https://angular-update-guide.firebaseapp.com/


$ npm install @angular/{animations,common,compiler,compiler-cli,core,forms,http,platform-browser,platform-browser-dynamic,platform-server,router}@5.0.0


Getting Started with Angular 5 from Scratch

Fortunately for you, if you already have a previous working experience with Angular 2 or Angular 4, starting a new Angular 5 project is very much the same process.

In case you don't have any previous experience with Angular framework just follow the instructions below to install Angular 5 from scratch.

Prerequisites

Before you can install Angular 5, you need to have some prerequisites.

Don't worry both requirements can be installed by going to the official website and download the installer for your operating system.

Next install the latest CLI from npm by running the following command from your terminal:

npm install @angular/cli -g


Once the Angular CLI v1.5.0 is installed on your system. You can create Angular 5 applications using the ng command.

You can check for the installed version of the Angular CLI using:

$ ng -v


You should get an output like:

Angular CLI: 1.5.0
Node: 6.11.4
OS: linux ia32
Angular: 
...


You can create your first Angular 5 project using one command:

$ ng new a-new-project --style=scss --routing


You can notice the two flags at the end, --style=scss which instructs the Angular CLI to use SCSS for styling and --routing for adding basic routing support to the new Angular project.

Once the project is scaffolded, you can navigate inside your project then serve it.

$ cd a-new-project
$ ng serve

That's it, you now have a new Angular 5 project ready for you to build your next awesome Angular application.

Just like Angular 4, you can also use the quick start project from Github to generate Angular 5 projects.

git clone https://github.com/angular/quickstart angular5project
cd angular5project 
npm install
npm start

Conclusion

Thanks to Angular CLI v1.5.0 you can get started with Angular 5 by generating a new project quickly with a variety of flags to customize and control the generation process.

Now that we have created a new project, in the next tutorial, we're going to start learning about the fundamentals of Angular 5 starting with components.

On the previous section we have seen different ways to create a new Angular 4 project or updating an existing Angular 2+ project to use Angular 4.

24 Apr 2018 5:00am GMT

22 Apr 2018

feedDjango community aggregator: Community blog posts

Authenticating via JWT using Django, Axios, and Vue

Getting Django Rest Framework, JWT, Axios, and Vue.js to play nice isn't easy. Here's my quick-and-dirty cheatsheet that I wrote while glueing the pieces together.

Note: My architecture doesn't use django-webpack-loader. Instead, I'm running Django and Vue.js as two separate projects. I do this because I much prefer generating new projects with vue create over configuring webpack.

The Back-End

First, install some Django parts using the installer of your choice:

pip install Django
pip install djangorestframework
pip install django-cors-headers
pip install djangorestframework-jwt

Then, configure Django in settings.py:

INSTALLED_APPS = (
    ...
    'rest_framework',
    'rest_framework.authtoken',  
    'rest_framework.authtoken',
    'corsheaders',
)


MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
  ...
  'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware',
)

CORS_ORIGIN_ALLOW_ALL = False
CORS_ALLOW_CREDENTIALS = True
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = (
    # TODO - set this properly for production
    'http://127.0.0.1:8080',
    'http://127.0.0.1:8000',
)


REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_PERMISSION_CLASSES': (
        # By default we set everything to admin,
        #   then open endpoints on a case-by-case basis
        'rest_framework.permissions.IsAdminUser',
    ),
    'TEST_REQUEST_RENDERER_CLASSES': (
        'rest_framework.renderers.MultiPartRenderer',
        'rest_framework.renderers.JSONRenderer',
        'rest_framework.renderers.TemplateHTMLRenderer'
    ),
    'DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES': (
        'rest_framework_jwt.authentication.JSONWebTokenAuthentication',
        'rest_framework.authentication.SessionAuthentication',
    ),
    'DEFAULT_PAGINATION_CLASS': 'rest_framework.pagination.LimitOffsetPagination',
    'PAGE_SIZE': 20,
}

from datetime import timedelta

JWT_AUTH = {
    'JWT_ALLOW_REFRESH': True,
    'JWT_EXPIRATION_DELTA': timedelta(hours=1),
    'JWT_REFRESH_EXPIRATION_DELTA': timedelta(days=7),
}

Once that's done, it's time to do modify the urls.py:

from django.conf.urls import include, url
...

urlpatterns = [
    ...
    # JWT auth
    url(r'^api/v1/auth/obtain_token/', obtain_jwt_token),
    url(r'^api/v1/auth/refresh_token/', refresh_jwt_token),    
    # The rest of the endpoints
    url(r'^api/v1/', include('project.api', namespace='apiv1')),
    ...
]

Run the tests and fix them as they fail.

The Front-End

First off, add this to your Vuex store:

import Vue from 'vue'
import Vuex from 'vuex'
import axios from 'axios'

Vue.use(Vuex)

// Make Axios play nice with Django CSRF
axios.defaults.xsrfCookieName = 'csrftoken'
axios.defaults.xsrfHeaderName = 'X-CSRFToken'

export default new Vuex.Store({
  state: {
    authUser: {},
    isAuthenticated: false,
    jwt: localStorage.getItem('token'),
    endpoints: {
      // TODO: Remove hardcoding of dev endpoints
      obtainJWT: 'http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/auth/obtain_token/',
      refreshJWT: 'http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/auth/refresh_token/',
      baseUrl: 'http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/'
    }
  },

  mutations: {
    setAuthUser(state, {
      authUser,
      isAuthenticated
    }) {
      Vue.set(state, 'authUser', authUser)
      Vue.set(state, 'isAuthenticated', isAuthenticated)
    },
    updateToken(state, newToken) {
      // TODO: For security purposes, take localStorage out of the project.
      localStorage.setItem('token', newToken);
      state.jwt = newToken;
    },
    removeToken(state) {
      // TODO: For security purposes, take localStorage out of the project.
      localStorage.removeItem('token');
      state.jwt = null;
    }
  }
})

Then, in a Vue component called something like components/Login.vue:

<template lang="html">
  <form class="login form">
    <div class="field">
      <label for="id_username">Username</label>
      <input
        v-model="username"
        type="text"
        placeholder="Username"
        autofocus="autofocus"
        maxlength="150"
        id="id_username">
    </div>
    <div class="field">
      <label for="id_password">Password</label>
      <input
        v-model="password"
        type="password"
        placeholder="Password"
        id="id_password">
    </div>
    <button
      @click.prevent="authenticate"
      class="button primary"
      type="submit">
      Log In
    </button>
  </form>
</template>

<script>
import axios from 'axios'

export default {
  data () {
    return {
      username: '',
      password: ''
    }
  },
  methods: {
    authenticate () {
      const payload = {
        username: this.username,
        password: this.password
      }
      axios.post(this.$store.state.endpoints.obtainJWT, payload)
        .then((response) => {
          this.$store.commit('updateToken', response.data.token)
          // get and set auth user
          const base = {
            baseURL: this.$store.state.endpoints.baseUrl,
            headers: {
            // Set your Authorization to 'JWT', not Bearer!!!
              Authorization: `JWT ${this.$store.state.jwt}`,
              'Content-Type': 'application/json'
            },
            xhrFields: {
                withCredentials: true
            }
          }
          // Even though the authentication returned a user object that can be
          // decoded, we fetch it again. This way we aren't super dependant on
          // JWT and can plug in something else.
          const axiosInstance = axios.create(base)
          axiosInstance({
            url: "/user/",
            method: "get",
            params: {}
          })
            .then((response) => {
              this.$store.commit("setAuthUser",
                {authUser: response.data, isAuthenticated: true}
              )
              this.$router.push({name: 'Home'})
            })

        })
        .catch((error) => {
          console.log(error);
          console.debug(error);
          console.dir(error);
        })
    }
  }
}
</script>

<style lang="css">
</style>

Summary

There you have it, my quick-and-dirty notes on getting Django REST Framework, JWT, Axios, and Vue.js to play nice together. Be aware there are a two significant problems:

  1. I'm not happy about using local storage, especially with JWT. In fact, my good friend Randall Degges has written about the problems of JWT.
  2. I don't cover logging out. ;)

Credits:

22 Apr 2018 4:00am GMT

20 Apr 2018

feedDjango community aggregator: Community blog posts

The final INTERNAL_IPS fix for development hosts

The final INTERNAL_IPS fix for development hosts

Django's INTERNAL_IPS setting is an ongoing source of frustration and confusion (not only, but also) for users of django-debug-toolbar, especially when using non-local addresses. This is very useful for testing a website using mobile devices if you do not have a very fast internet connection where it does not matter whether you connect to a host through the local network or via the internet, for example using localtunnel.

For some time we had a utility function which automatically added all detected network interface IPs to INTERNAL_IPS. However, this does not work when using virtualization software such as Docker or Vagrant with port forwarding, because the VM's (or container's) IP isn't what you want - you want the host IP.

Once I took a step back I saw a different, but much simpler solution. INTERNAL_IPS can be replaced with an object which simply answers True to all __contains__-type questions:

if DEBUG:
    # `debug` is only True in templates if the vistor IP is in INTERNAL_IPS.
    INTERNAL_IPS = type(str('c'), (), {'__contains__': lambda *a: True})()

20 Apr 2018 1:08pm GMT