13 Aug 2022

feedTalkAndroid

[Review] Improve your smartphone photography with the ShiftCam SnapGrip kit

Smartphones these days are much more important as cameras than telephones for most people. Whether you're shooting photos and videos as a professional, recording your life through images, or just a social media enthusiast, you've probably considered camera quality before buying a phone. The smartphone camera experience is good, but not great. Sure, the images […]


Come comment on this article: [Review] Improve your smartphone photography with the ShiftCam SnapGrip kit

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13 Aug 2022 8:01pm GMT

12 Aug 2022

feedTalkAndroid

Xiaomi’s Mix Fold 2 is almost the perfect rival to Samsung’s Galaxy Z Fold 4

This week brought us the refined Galaxy Z Fold 4 from Samsung which improves upon its predecessor without being revolutionary. Xiaomi also launched a new foldable called the Mix Fold 2, and if it was ever released outside of China it could provide the sort of competition that Samsung needs to continue innovating in the […]


Come comment on this article: Xiaomi's Mix Fold 2 is almost the perfect rival to Samsung's Galaxy Z Fold 4

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12 Aug 2022 5:08pm GMT

[Deal] Grab a cool $300 saving on EcoFlow’s Wave Portable Air Conditioner

If the summer heat is getting you down EcoFlow's Wave Portable Air Conditioner (reviewed here) is just what you need to cool down in your office, bedroom, tent, or pretty anywhere you go. Capable of cooling down a 64 square foot room by 10° F, EcoFlow's Wave packs in an inverted compressor and a design […]


Come comment on this article: [Deal] Grab a cool $300 saving on EcoFlow's Wave Portable Air Conditioner

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12 Aug 2022 2:21pm GMT

11 Aug 2022

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Build apps for the new Samsung devices

Posted by Diana Wong (Android Product Manager), Kseniia Shumelchyk (Developer Relations Engineer) and Sara Vickerman (Android Developer Marketing)

This week, Samsung launched the latest devices to come to the Android ecosystem at their Galaxy Unpacked event. If you haven't already, check out their two new foldables, the Galaxy Z Fold4 and Z Flip4, and their new lineup of watches running on Wear OS, the Galaxy Watch5 series. You can learn more about their announcements here.

With the excitement around these new devices, there's never been a better time to invest in making sure your app has an amazing experience for users, on large screens or Wear OS! Here's what you need to know to get started:

Get your apps ready for foldables, like the Galaxy Z Fold4 and Z Flip4

With their unique foldable experience, the Galaxy Z Flip4 and Z Fold4 are great examples of how Android devices come in all shapes and sizes. The Z Fold4 is the latest in large screen devices, a category that continues to see impressive growth. Active large screen users are approaching 270 million, making it a great time to optimize your apps for tablets, foldables and Chrome OS.

Last year, we launched Android 12L, a feature drop designed to make Android 12 even better on tablets and foldable devices, and Samsung's Galaxy Z Fold4 will be the first device to run 12L out of the box! Android 12L includes UI updates tailor-made for large screens, improvements to the multitasking experience, and enhancements to compatibility mode so your app looks better out of the box. Since 12L, we also launched Android 13, which includes all these large screen updates and more.

Get started building for foldables by checking out the documentation. The Z Fold4 and Z Flip4 can be used in multiple different folded states, like Samsung's "flex mode" where you can go hands-free when doing anything from watching a show to taking a photo. To get your app looking great however it's folded, you can use the Jetpack WindowManager library to make your app fold aware and test your app on foldables. And finally, the large screen app quality guidelines is a comprehensive set of checklists to help make your app the best it can be across an ever expanding ecosystem of large screen devices.


Developers who put in this work are starting to see results; eBay increased their app rating to 4.7 stars on Google Play after optimizing for large screens. Chrome's multitasking usage increased 18x for large screens with 12L.



Build exceptional Wear OS apps

The Wear OS platform expanded this week with the new and improved Galaxy Watch5 series. This lineup of devices builds on Samsung's commitment to the wearable platform, which we saw last year when they launched Wear OS Powered by Samsung on the Galaxy Watch4 series.

If you're looking to get started building for the latest Galaxy Watch 5 series, or any other Wear OS device, now is a great time to check out version 1.0 of Compose for Wear OS. This is the first stable release of our modern declarative UI toolkit designed to make building apps for Wear OS easier, faster, and more intuitive. The toolkit brings the best of Jetpack Compose to Wear OS, accelerating the development process so you can create beautiful apps with fewer lines of code.

The 1.0 release streamlines UI development by following the declarative approach and offering powerful Kotlin syntax. It also provides a rich set of UI components optimized for the watch experience and is accompanied by many powerful tools in Android Studio to streamline UI iteration. That's why Compose for Wear OS is our recommended approach for building user interfaces for Wear OS apps.

We've built a set of materials to help you get started with Compose for Wear OS! Check out our curated learning pathway for a step-by-step journey, documentation including a quick start guide, the Compose for Wear OS codelab for hands-on experience, and samples available on Github.

Similarly to Compose for Wear OS, we're building Wear OS Tile Components to make it faster and easier to build tiles. Tiles provide Wear OS users glanceable access to the information and actions they need in order to get things done quickly and they are one of the most used features on Wear OS. This update brings material components and layouts so you can create Tiles that embrace the latest Material design for Wear OS. Right now this is in beta, but keep a lookout for the launch announcement!

Another launch announcement to watch out for is Android Studio Dolphin, the latest release from Android Studio. Check out these features designed to make wearable app development easier:
  • Updated Wear OS emulator toolbar which now includes buttons and gestures available on Wear OS devices, such as palm and tilting and simulating two physical buttons.
  • Emulator pairing assistant to pair multiple Wear OS devices with a single virtual or physical phone. Android Studio remembers pairings after being closed and allows you to see Wear devices in the Device Manager.
  • Direct surface launch that allows you to create run/debug configurations for Wear OS tiles, watch faces, and complications, and launch them directly from Android Studio.
Between Jetpack Compose, Tile Components and Android Studio Dolphin, we are simplifying Wear OS app development. And, with the addition of the Galaxy Watch5 series to the Wear OS ecosystem, there are even more reasons to build an exceptional Wear OS app.


There's never been a better time to start optimizing!

Form factors are having a major moment this year and Google is committed to helping you optimize and build across form factors with new content and tools, including sessions and workshops from this year's Google I/O and new Android Studio features. Plus, we have Material Design guidance for large screens and Wear OS to help you in your optimization journey.

From the Watch5 series to the Z Fold4, Samsung's Galaxy Unpacked brought us innovations across screen sizes and types. Prepare your app so it looks great across the entire Android device ecosystem!

11 Aug 2022 5:00pm GMT

02 Aug 2022

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Google Play Indie Games Festival: Finalists revealed

Posted by Patricia Correa, Director, Global Developer Marketing

The Indie Games Festival shines a spotlight on some of the best games on Google Play, and celebrates the passion and creativity that small games studios bring to gamers worldwide. This year we are hosting Festival in South Korea, Japan and Europe, for local developers and gamers from all over the world.

Earlier this summer, we opened submissions, and today we're revealing the finalists. Scroll down to see the shortlisted games!

Join the finals

September 3rd will be a jam packed day for indie games fans. Everyone is invited to attend the finals for the three Festivals, starting with South Korea at 2pm KST, followed shortly after by Japan at 3pm JST, and wrapping up with Europe at 11am CET.

The finals will be held in a custom virtual world where you can meet the people behind the finalist games, explore the titles, have fun with gamers from around the world, and be the first to discover the winners.

The events will be hosted by Julia Hardy (Europe), Inho Jung (Korea) and Kajisac (Japan).

At the European finals we will also reveal the class of 2022 of the Indie Games Accelerator, a program that helps small game studios take their game to the next level by providing them training and mentorship.

Without further ado, please meet the finalists and join us in congratulating them!

Europe

(in alphabetical order, also in this collection)

Blacken Slash

DT Space Races

Dungeons of Dreadrock

Find Hidden Objects Game (AR)

Fury Unleashed

Get Together: A Coop Adventure

Gladiators: Survival in Rome

Hygge is...

Kingdom: Idle Gold Tycoon

Kitty Q

Light It Up: Energy Loops

Luna Ravel

Paths: Beatrice's adventure

Pawnbarian

Please, Touch The Artwork

Quadline

Rhythmer_

Square Valley

sugar game

Wingspan

---

Japan

(in alphabetical order)

A Year of Springs

Attack on Tankette

Brave Farm Survival

Cards and Dragons Sealed

Catastrophe Restaurant

Crazy Donuts

DeathAntique (Early Access not yet available globally)

Dungeon and Gravestone

exp!A

GenEi AP: Empty Heart

HUNGRY PIG

Jack & Detectives

Raspberry Mash

SOULVARS

Statute of Limitations "1 minute" world

SUSHI ALONE

Sushi Food Cart

Time for Coffee in the Strange Forest

Train's Run

UnionShooter360

---

Korea

(in alphabetical order)

Bingo Star

Calibur League

Connect

Counting Star

Cube Of Life: Resurrection

Drawing Beats!

Dungeon Rogue

FIND ALL 3D

Idle Ghost Hotel

Lost Pages

Meow Tower: Nonogram

Merge of Mini : with your legion

Pa!nt

Random Card

Shambles

Soul Launcher

SuperBattle

The Greater

Uglyhood

Undead vs Demon

More about the Indie Games Festival and the Indie Games Accelerator

At Google Play we're committed to helping developers of all sizes succeed on our platform. Programs like the Festival and the Accelerator are here to help small games studios:

Learn more about the programs.

For more updates about all of our programs, resources and tools for indie game developers, follow us on Twitter @GooglePlayBiz and Google Play business community on LinkedIn.

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02 Aug 2022 2:00pm GMT

29 Jul 2022

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Prepare your app to support predictive back gestures

Posted by Jason Tang, Product Management, Diego Zuluaga, Developer Relations, and Michael Mauzy, Developer Documentation

Since we introduced gesture navigation in Android 10, users have signaled they want to understand where a back gesture will take them before they complete it.

As the first step to addressing this need, we've been developing a predictive back gesture. When a user starts their gesture by swiping back, we'll show an animated preview of the destination UI, and the user can complete the gesture to navigate to that UI if they want - as shown in the following example.

Although the predictive back gesture won't be visible to users in Android 13, we're making an early version of the UI available as a developer option for testing starting in Beta 4. We plan to make the UI available to users in a future Android release, and we'd like all apps to be ready. We're also working with partners to ensure it's consistent across devices.

Read on for details on how to try out the new gesture and support it in your apps. Adding support for predictive back gesture is straightforward for most apps, and you can get started today.

We also encourage you to submit your feedback.

Try out the predictive back gesture in Beta 4

To try out the early version of the predictive back gesture available through the developer option, you'll need to first update your app to support the predictive back gesture, and then enable the developer option.

Update your app to support predictive back gesture

To help make predictive back gesture helpful and consistent for users, we're moving to an ahead-of-time model for back event handling by adding new APIs and deprecating existing APIs.

The new platform APIs and updates to AndroidX Activity 1.6+ are designed to make your transition from unsupported APIs (KeyEvent#KEYCODE_BACK and OnBackPressed) to the predictive back gesture as smooth as possible.

The new platform APIs include OnBackInvokedCallback and OnBackInvokedDispatcher, which AndroidX Activity 1.6+ supports through the existing OnBackPressedCallback and OnBackPressedDispatcher APIs.

You can start testing this feature in two to four steps, depending on your existing implementation.

To begin testing this feature:


1. Upgrade to AndroidX Activity 1.6.0-alpha05. By upgrading your dependency on AndroidX Activity, APIs that are already using the OnBackPressedDispatcher APIs such as Fragments and the Navigation Component will seamlessly work when you opt-in for the predictive back gesture.

// In your build.gradle file:
dependencies {

// Add this in addition to your other dependencies
implementation "androidx.activity:activity:1.6.0-alpha05"


2. Opt-in for the predictive back gesture. Opt-in your app by setting the EnableOnBackInvokedCallback flag to true at the application level in the AndroidManifest.xml.

<application

...

android:enableOnBackInvokedCallback="true"

... >

...

</application>


If your app doesn't intercept the back event, you're done at this step.

Note: Opt-in is optional in Android 13, and it will be ignored after this version.

3. Create a callback to intercept the system Back button/event. If possible, we recommend using the AndroidX APIs as shown below. For non-AndroidX use cases, check the platform API mentioned above.

This snippet implements handleOnBackPressed and adds the OnBackPressedCallback to the OnBackPressedDispatcher at the activity level.

val onBackPressedCallback = object: OnBackPressedCallback(true) {

override fun handleOnBackPressed() {

// Your business logic to handle the back pressed event

}

}

requireActivity().onBackPressedDispatcher

.addCallback(onBackPressedCallback)


4. When your app is ready to stop intercepting the system Back event, disable the onBackPressedCallback callback.

onBackPressedCallback.isEnabled = webView.canGoBack()



Note: Your app may require using the platform APIs (OnBackInvokedCallback and OnBackPressedDispatcher) to implement the predictive back gesture. Read our documentation for details.

Enable the developer option to test the predictive back gesture

Once you've updated your app to support the predictive back gesture, you can enable a developer option (supported in Android 13 Beta 4 and higher) to see it for yourself.

To test this animation, complete the following steps:
  1. On your device, go to Settings > System > Developer options.
  2. Select Predictive back animations.
  3. Launch your updated app, and use the back gesture to see it in action.

Learn more

In addition to our detailed documentation, try out our predictive back gesture codelab in an actual implementation.

If you need a refresher on system back and predictive back gesture on Android, we recommend watching Basics for System Back.


Thank you again for all the feedback and being a part of the Android Community - we love collaborating together to provide the best experience for our users.

29 Jul 2022 5:04pm GMT

04 Apr 2022

feedPlanet Maemo

Computing replaygain for your Music library

TLDR; command at the end of post

If you want a equal loudness for your Music library the go to solution and the de-facto standard is ReplayGain.
If you are using a music streaming service, the provider is typically taking care of that for you - but maybe you want to migrate towards your own streaming solution.

ReplayGain analyses your audio files and stores their deviation from the baseline loudness as a tag. A compatible audio player can then read the tag and correct the playback volume so all you tracks have the same loudness.

Of course things get messy once you look at details like what the baseline loudness should be and how to determine loudness in the first place. Therefore we set the baseline once and for all as 89db and consider even tracks of the same album individually. If you disagree, feel free to branch off reading up the details now.

The next issue is that ReplayGain was born in a time where mp3 was synonymous to digital music, hence the algorithm was first implemented as the mp3gain CLI tool. Nowadays you also need aacgain and vorbisgain to cover all your formats, which is cumbersome to automate.

The larger issue with ReplayGain is that it defines loudness of a track by its peak volume. While a sane choice in theory, in practice the music and advertising industries raced to increase the perceived loudness without raising the peak volume. As broadcasters also used peak volume normalization, one could blow your eardrum with that very special advertisement.
Therefore the EBU R 128 was proposed which at its core is RMS based, meaning it is considering the average volume of the track.

Remember that ReplayGain merely adds a correction value to the tracks? This allows us to compute that correction value based on the R128 algorithm for a better normalization, which is exactly what the r128gain tool does.
Being written in modern day, r128gain also processes all possible audio files by hooking into ffmpeg as a filter.

So, without further ado, this is the command to normalize your Music library:

# pip3 install r128gain
r128gain -p -r Music/

This will preserve "-p" the file timestamps and recursively "-r" process all files in the given directory.

Trouble shooting

Note that if you previously used mp3gain, your files might contain non-standard lower-case replaygain_* tags, while r128gain will only write REPLAYGAIN_* tags.
To avoid confusing players with different values, you should remove the non-standard tags. This can be automated with eyeD3

eyeD3 -Q --remove-frame RGAD --preserve-file-times --user-text-frame=replaygain_track_gain: --user-text-frame=replaygain_track_peak: --user-text-frame=replaygain_album_gain: --user-text-frame=replaygain_album_peak: Music/

Refer to its documentation for the meaning of the parameters.

Header Image: "volume" by christina rutz (CC-BY-2.0)

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04 Apr 2022 4:13pm GMT

18 Feb 2022

feedPlanet Maemo

Can Std Be Cured At Home

If you've been exposed to an std or are experiencing symptoms of an std you should see a doctor about std testing. 12.01.2022 · you can choose to test for a single sti or std, or do a full panel. Start treatment discreetly with medication provided at no additional charge. Same labs as physicians & hospitals. They work better the sooner you take them.

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Sometimes there are no symptoms at all.

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Once your results come back the doctor will. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. 12.02.2020 · get std testing and treatment online. They work better the sooner you take them. Our top doctors are able to write std testing orders and will refer you to your local lab for testing.

22.07.2021 · chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. Stone Columns | Mountain Home Architects, Timber Frame Stone Columns | Mountain Home Architects, Timber Frame from www.homearchitects.com We now have very effective treatments for hiv. Sometimes there are no symptoms at all. 12.02.2020 · get std testing and treatment online. 12.01.2022 · you can choose to test for a single sti or std, or do a full panel. Cdc recommends a single dose of 500 mg of intramuscular ceftriaxone. Medication sent to you, at no extra cost. Confidential results in 2 to 5 days. Emphasizing again on the fact that tonsillitis can be cured with simple home remedies if the bacterial infection has not caused a serious effect or else antibiotics will be prescribed by your doctor.salt water gargle can be the easiest way to treat an inflamed tonsil.

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Sometimes there are no symptoms at all.

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Can Std Be Cured At Home. These medications are available to everyone who needs them in king county, wa. Emphasizing again on the fact that tonsillitis can be cured with simple home remedies if the bacterial infection has not caused a serious effect or else antibiotics will be prescribed by your doctor.salt water gargle can be the easiest way to treat an inflamed tonsil. Gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment. 09.09.2021 · it is the only way you can know for sure if you have hiv or an std. This can be done online through plushcare.

Echinacea tea also helps to treat tonsils with white spots on the throat along with boosting your … Ayusya Home Health Care Pvt Ltd-Bangalore-Chennai-Madurai Source: www.ayusyahomehealthcare.com

Alternative regimens are available when ceftriaxone cannot be used to treat urogenital or rectal gonorrhea. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. Confidential results in 2 to 5 days. Our top doctors are able to write std testing orders and will refer you to your local lab for testing. Majority of these are found in china with a few of them prevalent in asia and the mediterranean region.

Untreated stds are leading causes of infertility (inability to make a baby) for both men and women. 10 New Fixtures to Illuminate the Outdoors | Architectural Source: cdnassets.hw.net

Start treatment discreetly with medication provided at no additional charge. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. 09.09.2021 · it is the only way you can know for sure if you have hiv or an std. 12.01.2022 · you can choose to test for a single sti or std, or do a full panel. Same labs as physicians & hospitals.

Confidential results in 2 to 5 days. Making Easy and Fun Food Molds with Silicone Putty Source: www.smooth-on.com

16.08.2021 · syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. We now have very effective treatments for hiv. This can be done online through plushcare. Echinacea tea also helps to treat tonsils with white spots on the throat along with boosting your … 22.07.2021 · chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics.

Same labs as physicians & hospitals. Pachmarhi hill station Source: welcomenri.com

22.07.2021 · chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. Our top doctors are able to write std testing orders and will refer you to your local lab for testing. This can be done online through plushcare. 16.08.2021 · syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. 05.07.2017 · epimedium belongs to the flowering plants of the family berberidaceae.

Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2019 Source: www.cdc.gov

Emphasizing again on the fact that tonsillitis can be cured with simple home remedies if the bacterial infection has not caused a serious effect or else antibiotics will be prescribed by your doctor.salt water gargle can be the easiest way to treat an inflamed tonsil. Cdc recommends a single dose of 500 mg of intramuscular ceftriaxone. Gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment. If it's difficult to access a doctor or other healthcare professional, fully … 05.07.2017 · epimedium belongs to the flowering plants of the family berberidaceae.

Sometimes there are no symptoms at all. Chhapaar Mela, Ludhiana Punjab India 2020 Dates, Festival Source: www.travelwhistle.com

Medication sent to you, at no extra cost. If you've been exposed to an std or are experiencing symptoms of an std you should see a doctor about std testing. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. Emphasizing again on the fact that tonsillitis can be cured with simple home remedies if the bacterial infection has not caused a serious effect or else antibiotics will be prescribed by your doctor.salt water gargle can be the easiest way to treat an inflamed tonsil. We now have very effective treatments for hiv.

09.09.2021 · it is the only way you can know for sure if you have hiv or an std. Stone Columns | Mountain Home Architects, Timber Frame Source: www.homearchitects.com

Start treatment discreetly with medication provided at no additional charge. 16.08.2021 · syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. Same labs as physicians & hospitals. If it's difficult to access a doctor or other healthcare professional, fully … Medication sent to you, at no extra cost.

These medications are available to everyone who needs them in king county, wa. Commercial & Residential Construction - DWL Construction Source: www.dwlconstruction.com

Our providers can review the results of urine or blood tests that are ordered and collected by an outside lab to determine if you have an std, and provide a treatment recommendation, which may include a prescription. 12.01.2022 · you can choose to test for a single sti or std, or do a full panel. If it's difficult to access a doctor or other healthcare professional, fully … They work better the sooner you take them. If you've been exposed to an std or are experiencing symptoms of an std you should see a doctor about std testing.

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18 Feb 2022 12:28pm GMT

17 Feb 2022

feedPlanet Maemo

Maemo Community e.V. - Invitation to the General Assembly 2022

Maemo Community e.V. - Invitation to the General Assembly 2022

Dear Member,

The meeting will be held on Thursday, March 17th 2022 at 20:00 CET on irc.libera.chat channel #maemo-meeting.

Unless any further issues are raised, the agenda includes the following topics:
1. Welcome by the Chairman of the Board
2. Determination of the proper convocation and the quorum of the General Assembly
3. Election of the Board Directors
6. Any other business

Requests for additions to the agenda must be submitted to the Board in writing one week prior to the meeting (§ 9.2 of the Statutes).

On Behalf of the Maemo Council, Jussi Ohenoja

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17 Feb 2022 8:00am GMT

10 Oct 2021

feedPlanet Openmoko

Harald "LaF0rge" Welte: First steps towards an ITU-T V5.1 / V5.2 implementation

As some of you may know, I've been starting to collect "vintage" telecommunications equipment starting from analog modems to ISDN adapters, but also PBXs and even SDH equipment. The goal is to keep this equipment (and related software) alive for demonstration and practical exploration.

Some [incomplete] information can be found at https://osmocom.org/projects/retro-bbs/wiki/

Working with PBXs to simulate the PSTN (ISDN/POTS) network is fine to some extent, but it's of course not the real deal. You only get S0-buses and no actual Uk0 like actual ISDN lines of the late 80ies and 90ies. You have problems with modems not liking the PBX dialtone, etc.

Hence, I've always wanted to get my hand on some more real-world central-office telephone network equipment, and I finally have a source for so-called V5.1/V5.2 access multiplexers. Those are like remote extension boxes for the central office switch (like EWSD or System 12). They aggregate/multiplex a number of analog or ISDN BRI subscriber lines into E1 lines, while not implementing any of the actual call control or ISDN signalling logic. All of that is provided by the actual telephone switch/exchange.

So in order to integrate such access multiplexers in my retronetworking setup, I will have to implement the LE (local exchange) side of the V5.1 and/or V5.2 protocols, as specified in ITU-T G.964 and G.965.

In the limited spare time I have next to my dayjob and various FOSS projects, progress will likely be slow. Nonetheless I started with an implementation now, and I already had a lot of fun learning about more details of those interfaces and their related protocols.

One of the unresolved questions is to what kind of software I would want to integrate once the V5.x part is resolved.

  • lcr would probably be the most ISDN-native approach, but it is mostly unused and quite EOL.

  • Asterisk or FreeSWITCH would of course be obvious candidates, but they are all relatively alien to ISDN, and hence not very transparent once you start to do anything but voice calls (e.g. dialup ISDN data calls in various forms).

  • yate is another potential candidate. It already supports classic SS7 including ISUP, so it would be a good candidate to build an actual ISDN exchange with V5.2 access multiplexers on the customer-facing side (Q.921+Q.931 on it) and SS7/ISUP towards other exchanges.

For now I think yate would be the most promising approach. Time will tell.

The final goal would then be to have a setup [e.g. at a future CCC congress] where we would have SDH add/drop multiplexers in several halls, and V5.x access multiplexers attached to that, connecting analog and ISDN BRI lines from individual participants to a software-defined central exchange. Ideally actually multiple exchanges, so we can show the signaling on the V5.x side, the Q.921/Q.931 side and the SS7/ISUP between the exchanges.

Given that the next CCC congress is not before December 2022, there is a chance to actually implement this before then ;)

10 Oct 2021 10:00pm GMT

19 Jul 2021

feedPlanet Openmoko

Harald "LaF0rge" Welte: Notfallwarnung im Mobilfunknetz + Cell Broadcast (Teil 2)

[excuse this German-language post, this is targeted at the current German public discourse]

Ein paar Ergänzungen zu meinem blog-post gestern.

Ich benutzt den generischen Begriff PWS statt SMSCB, weil SMSCB strikt genommen nur im 2G-System existiert, und nur ein Layer ist, der dort für Notfallalarmierung verwendet wird.

Zu Notfallwarn-Apps

Natürlich sind spezielle, nationale Deutsche Katastrophenschutz-Apps auch nützlich! Aber diese sollten allenfalls zusätzlich angeboten werden, nachdem man erstmal die grundlegende Alarmierung konform der relevanten internationalen (und auch EU-)Standards via Cell Broadcast / PWS realisiert. Man sagt ja auch nicht: Nachrichtensendungen braucht man im Radio nicht mehr, weil man die bereits im Fernsehen hat. Man will auf allen verfügbaren Kanälen senden, und zunächst jene mit möglichst universeller Reichweite und klaren technischen Vorteilen benutzen, bevor man dann zusätzlich auch auf anderen Kanälen alarmiert.

Wie sieht PWS für mich als Anwender aus

Hier scheint es größere Missverständnisse zu geben, wie das auf dem Telefon letztlich aussieht. Ist ja auch verständlich, hierzulande sieht man das nie, ausser man ist zufällig in einem Labor/Basttel-Netz z.B. auf einer CCC-Veranstaltung unterwegs, in der das Osmocom-Projekt mal solche Nachrichten versendet hat.

Die PWS (ETWS, CMAS, WEA, KPAS, EU-ALERT, ...) nachrichten werden vom Telefon empfangen, und dann je nach Konfiguration und Priorität behandelt. Für die USA ist im WEA vorgeschrieben, dass Alarme einer bestimmten Prioritatsklasse (z.B. der Presidential Level Alert) immer zwangsweise zur Anzeige gebracht werden und immer mit einem lauten sirenenartigen Alarmton einhergehen. Es ist sogar explizit verboten, dass der Anwender diese Alarme irgendwo ausstellen, stumm schalten o.ä. kann. Insofern spielt es keine Rolle, ob das Telefon gerade Lautlos gestellt ist, oder es nicht gerade unmittelbar bei mir ist.

Bei manchen Geräten werden die Warnungen sogar mittels einer text2speech-Engine laut über den Lautsprecher vorgelesen, nachdem der Alarmton erscheint. Ob das eine regulatorische Anforderung eines der nationalen System ist, weiss ich nicht - ich habe es jedenfalls bereits in manchen Fällen gesehen, als ich mittels Osmocom-Software solche Alarme in privaten Labornetzen versandt habe.

Noch ein paar technische Details

  • PWS-Nachrichten werden auch dann noch ausgestrahlt, wenn die Zelle ihre Netzanbindung verloren hat. Wenn also z.B. das Glasfaserkabel zum Kernnetz bereits weg ist, aber noch Strom da ist, werden bereits vorher vom CBC (Cell Broadcast Centre) an die Mobilfunkzelle übermittelte Warnungen entsprechend ihrer Gültigkeitsdauer weiter autonom von der Zelle ausgesendet Das ist wieder ein inhärenter technischer Vorteil, der niemals mit einer App erreichbar ist, weil diese erfordert dass das komplette Mobilfunknetz mit allen internen Verbindungen und dem Kernnetz sowie die Internetverbindung vom Netzbetreiber zum Server des App-Anbieters durchgehend funktioniert.

  • PWS-Nachrichten können zumindest technisch auch von Telefonen empfangen werden, die garnicht im Netz eingebucht sind, oder die keine SIM eingelegt haben. Ob dies in den Standards gefordert wird, und/oder ob dies die jeweilige Telefonsoftware das so umsetzt, weiss ich nicht und müsste man prüfen. Technisch liegt es nahe, ähnlich wie das Absetzen von Notrufen, das ja auch technisch in diesen Fällen möglich ist.

Zu den Kosten

Wenn - wie in der idealen Welt - das Vorhalten von Notfallalarmierung eine Vorgabe bereits zum Zeitpunkt der Lizenzvergabe für Funkfrequenzen gewesen wäre, wäre das alles einfach ganz lautlos von Anfang an immer unterstützt gewesen. Keiner hätte extra Geld investieren müssen, weil diese minimale technische Vorgabe dann ja bereits Teil der Ausschreibungen der Betreiber für den Einkauf ihres Equipments gewesen wäre. Zudem hatten wir ja bereits in der Vergangenheit Cell Brodacast in allen drei Deutschen Netzen, d.h. die Technik war mal [aus ganz andern Gründen] vorhanden aber wurde irgendwann weggespart.

Das jetzt nachträglich einzuführen heisst natürlich, dass es niemand eingeplant hat, und dass jeder beteiligte am Markt sich das vergolden lassen will. Die Hersteller freuen sich in etwa wie "Oh, Ihr wollt jetzt mehr als ihr damals beim Einkauf spezifiziert habt? Schön, dann schreiben wir mal ein Angebot".

Technisch ist das alles ein Klacks. Die komplette Entwicklung aller Bestandteile für PWS in 2G/3G/4G/5G würde ich auf einen niedrigen einmaligen sechsstelligen Betrag schätzen. Und das ist die einmalige Investition in der Entwicklung, welche dann über alle Geräte/Länder/Netze umgebrochen wird. Bei den Milliarden, die in Entwicklung und Anschaffung von Mobilfunktechnik investiert wird, ist das ein Witz.

Die Geräte wie Basisstationen aller relevanten Hersteller unterstützen natürlich von Haus aus PWS. Die bauen für Deutschland ja nicht andere Geräte, als jene, die in UK, NL, RO, US, ... verbaut werden. Der Markt ist international, die gleiche Technik steht überall.

Weil man jetzt zu spät ist, wird das natürlich von allen Seiten ausgenutzt. Jeder Basisstationshersteller wird die Hand aufhalten und sagen, das kostet jetzt pro Zelle X EUR im Jahr zusätzliche Lizenzgebühren. Und die Anbieter der zentralen Komponente CBC werden auch branchenüblich die Hand aufhalten, mit satten jährlichen Lizenzgebühren. Und die Consultants werden auch alle die Hand aufhalten, weil es gibt wieder etwas zu Integrieren, zu testen, ... Das CBC ist keine komplexe Technik. Wenn man das einmalig als Open Source entwickeln lässt, und in allen Netzen einsetzt, bekommt man es quasi zum Nulltarif. Aber das würde ja Voraussetzen, dass man sich wirklich mit der Technik befasst, versteht um welch simple Software es hier geht, und dass man mal andere Wege in der Beschaffung geht, als nur mal eben bei seinen existierenden 3 Lieferanten anzurufen, die sich dann eine goldene Nase verdienen wollen.

In der öffentlichen Diskussion wird von 20-40 Millionen EUR gesprochen. Das sind überzogene Forderungen der Marktteilnehmer, nichts sonst. Aber selbst wenn man der Meinung ist, dass man lieber das Geld zum Fenster hinauswerfen will, statt Open Source Alternativen zu [ver]suchen, dann ist auch diese Größenordnung etwas, dass im Vergleich zu den sonstigen Anschaffungs- und Betriebskosten eines Mobilfunknetzes verschwindend gering ist. Ganz zu schweigen von den Folgekosten im Bereich Bergung/Rettung, Personenschäden, etc. die sich dadurch mittelfristig bei Katastrophen einsparen lassen.

Oder anders betrachtet: Wenn sogar das wirtschaftlich viel schwächere Rumänien sich sowas leisten kann, dann wird es wohl auch die Bundesrepublik Deutschland stemmen können.

19 Jul 2021 10:00pm GMT

18 Jul 2021

feedPlanet Openmoko

Harald "LaF0rge" Welte: Notfallwarnung im Mobilfunknetz + Cell Broadcast

[excuse this German-language post, this is targeted at the current German public discourse]

In mehrerern Gegenden Deutschlands gab es verheerende Hochwasser, und die Öffentlichkeit diskutiert deshalb mal wieder die gute alte Frage nach dem adäquaten Mittel der Alarmierung der Bevölkerung.

Es ist einfach nur ein gigantisches Trauerspiel, wie sehr die Deutsche Politik und Verwaltung in diesem Punkt inzwischen seit Jahrzehnten sämtliche relevanten Standards verpennt, und dann immer wieder öffentlich durch fachlich falsche und völlig uninformierte Aussagen auffällt.

Das Thema wurde vor dem aktuellen Hochwasser bereits letztes Jahr im Rahmen des sog. WarnTag öffentlich diskutiert. Auch hier von Seiten der öffentlichen Hand ausschliesslich mit falschen Aussagen, wie z.B. dass es bei Cell Broadcast Datenschutzprobleme gibt. Dabei ist Cell Broadcast die einzige Technologie, wo keine Rückmeldung des einzelnen Netzteilnehmers erfolgt, und das Netz nichtmal weiss, wer die Nachricht empfangen hat, und wo dieser Empfang stattgefunden hat. Ganz wie beim UKW-Radio.

Fakt ist, dass alle digitalen Mobilfunkstandards seit GSM/2G, d.h. seit 1991 die Möglichkeit mitbringen, effizient, schnell und datensparsam alle Nutzer (einer bestimmten geographischen Region) mit sogenannten broadcast Nachrichten zu informieren. Diese Technik, in GSM/2G genannt Cell Broacast (oder auch _SMSCB_), unterscheidet sich Grundlegend von allen anderen Kommunikationsformen im Mobilfunknetz, wie Anrufe und herkömmliche SMS (offiziell SMS-PP). Anrufe, SMS und auch mobile Paketdaten (Internet) werden immer für jeden Teilnehmer individuell auf ihm zugewiesenen Funkressourcen übermittelt. Diese Ressourcen sind beschränkt. Es können in keinem Mobilfunknetz der Welt alle Teilnehmer gleichzeitig telefonieren, oder gleichzeitig SMS empfangen.

Stattdessen benutzt Cell Broadcast - wie der Name bereits unmissverständlich klar macht - Einen broadcast, d.h. Rundsendemechanismus. Eine Nachricht wird einmal gesendet, benötigt also nur eine geteilte Ressource auf der Luftschnittstelle, und wird dann von allen Geräten im Empfangsbereich zeitgleich empfangen und dekodiert. Das ist wie UKW-Radio oder klassisches terrestrisches Fernsehen.

Cell Broadcast wurde bereits in den 1990er Jahren von Deutschen Netzbetreibern benutzt. Und zwar nicht für etwas lebensnotwendiges wie die Notfallsignalisierung, sondern für so banale Dinge wie die Liste jener Vorwahlen, zu denen gerade ein vergünstigter "wandernder Ortstarif" Besteht. Ja, sowas gab es mal bei Vodafone. Oder bei O2 wurden über lange Zeit (aus unbekannten Gründen) die GPS-Koordinaten der jeweiligen Basisstation als Cell Broadcast versendet.

In der folgenden (nun fast abgeschalteten) Mobilfunkgeneration 3G wurde Cell Broadcast leicht umbenannt als Service Area Broadcast beibehalten. Schliesslich gibt es ja Länder mit - anders als in Deutschland - funktionierender und kompetenter Regulierung des Telekommunikationsmarktes, und die langjährig bestehenden gesetzlichen Anforderungen solcher Länder zwingen die Netzbetreiber und auch die Ausrüster der Neztbetreiber, neue Mobilfunkstandards so zu entwickeln, dass die gesetzlichen Vorgaben bzgl. der Alarmierung der Bevölkerung im Notfall funktioniert.

Im Rahmen dieser Standardisierung haben eine Reihe von Ländern innerhalb der 3GPP-Standardisierung (zuständig für 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G) sogenannte Public Warning Systems (PWS) standardisiert. Zu diesen gehören z.B. das Japanische ETWAS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System), das Koreanische KPAS (Korean Public Alerting System), das US-Amerikanische WEA (Wireless Emergency Alerts, früher bekannt als CMAS) und auch das EU-ALERT mit den nationalen Implementationen NL-ALERT (Niederlande) und UK-ALERT (Großbritannien) sowie RO-ALERT (Rumänien).

Die zahlreichen Studien und Untersuchungen, die zur Gestaltung obiger Systeme und der internationalen Standards im Mobilfunk geführt haben, weisen auch nochmal nach, was sowieso vorher jedem Techniker offensichtlich erscheint: Eine schelle Alarmierung aller Teilnehmer (einer Region) kann nur über einen Broadcast-Mechanismus erfolgen. In Japan war die Zielvorgabe, die Alarmierung in Erdbebenfällen innerhalb von weniger als 4 Sekunden an die gesamte betroffene Bevölkerung zu übertragen. Und das ist mit PWS möglich!

Die relevanten PWS-Standards in 2G/3G/4G/5G bieten jede Menge nützliche Funktionen:

  • Benachrichtigung in bestimmten geographischen Regionen

  • Interoperable Schnittstellen, so dass Netzwerkelemente unterschiedlicher Hersteller miteinander kommunizieren

  • Konfigurierbare Benachrichtigungstexte, nicht nur in der primären Landessprache, sondern auch in mehreren anderen Sprachen, die dann automatisch je nach Spracheinstellung des Telefons wiedergegeben werden

  • Unterschiedliche Schweregrade von Alarmierungen

  • Übermittlung nicht nur im Broadcast, sondern auch im Unicast an jeden Teilnehmer, der gerade in einem Telefongespräch ist, und dessen Telefon gerade währenddessen aus technischen Gründen den Broadcast nicht empfangen würde

  • Unterschied zwischen Wiederholung einer Übertragung ohne Änderung des Inhalts und einer übertragung mit geändertem Inhalt

Es gibt also seit vielen Jahren internationale Standards, wie sämtliche heute eingesetzten Mobilfunktechniken zur schnellen, effizienten und datensparsamen Alarmierung der Bevölkerung eingesetzt werden können.

Es gibt zahlreiche Länder, die diese Systeme seit langem einsetzen. Das US-Amerikanische WEA wurde nach eigenen Angaben seit 2012 bereits mehr als 61.000 Mal benutzt, um Menschen vor Unwetter oder anderen Katastrophen zu warnen.

Sogar innerhalb der EU hat man das EU-ALERT System spezifiziert, welches weitgehend mit dem amerikanischen WEA identisch ist, und auf die gleichen Techniken aufbaut.

Und dann gibt es Länder wie Deutschland, die es seit genauso vielen Jahren vermissen lassen, durch Gesetze oder Vorschriften

  1. die Netzbetreiber zum Betrieb dieser Broadcast-Technologien in ihrem Netz verpflichtet

  2. die Netzbetreiber zur Bereitstellung von standardisierten Schnittstellen gegenüber den Behörden wie Zivilschutz / Katastrophenschutz zu verpflichten, so das diese selbständig über alle Netzbetreiber Warnungen versenden können

  3. die Gerätehersteller z.B. über Vorschriften des FTEG (Gesetz über Funkanlagen und Telekommunikationsendeinrichtungen) zu Verpflichten, die PWS-Nachrichten anzuzeigen

In den USA, dem vermeintlich viel mehr dem Freien Markt und dem Kapitalismus anhängenden System ist all dies der Regulierungsbehörde FCC möglich. In Deutschland mit seiner sozialen Marktwirtschaft ist es anscheinend unmöglich, den Markt entsprechend zu regulieren. Eine solche Regulierung schafft man in Deutschland nur für wirklich wichtige Themen wie zur Durchsetzung der Bereitstellung von Schnittstellen für die Telekommunikationsüberwachung. Bei so irrelevanten Themen wie dem Katastrophenschutz und der Alarmierung der Bevölkerung braucht man den Markt nicht zu regulieren. Wenn die Netzbetreiber kein PWS anbieten wollen, dann ist das einfach so Gottgegeben, und man kann da ja nichts machen.

Falls jemand sich SMSCB und PWS technisch näher ansehen will: In 2019 haben wir im Osmocom-Projekt eine Open Source Implementation des kompletten Systems von BTS über BSC bis zum CBC, sowie der dazwischen befindlichen Protokolle wie CBSP vorgenommen. Dies wurde freundlicherweise durch den Prototype Fund mit EUR 35k finanziert. Ja, so günstig kann man die nötige Technik zumindest für eine einzelne Mobilfunkgeneration entwickeln...

Man kann also in einem selbst betriebenen Labor-Mobilfunknetz, welches auf Open Source Software basiert mehr in Punkt standardkonformer Notfallalarmierung, als die Deutsche Politik, Verwaltung und Netzbetreiber zusammen hinbekommen.

Wir haben in Deutschland Leute, die diese Standards in und auswendig kennen, sogar daran mitgearbeitet haben. Wir haben Entwickler, die diese Standards implementiert haben. Aber wir schaffen es nicht, das auch mal selbst praktisch zu benutzen - das überlassen wir lieber den anderen Ländern. Wir lassen lieber zuerst die ganze Katastrophenalarmierung mittels Sirenen vergammeln, machen den Netzbetreibern keine Vorgaben, entwicklen komische Apps, die Anwender extra installieren müssen, die prinzipbedingt nicht skalieren und beim Test (WarnTag) nicht funktionieren.

Was für eine Glanzleistung für den hochentwickelten Techhologie-Standort Deutschland.

18 Jul 2021 10:00pm GMT

12 Nov 2011

feedPlanet Linux-to-go

Paul 'pfalcon' Sokolovsky: Shopping for 3D TV...

Shopping for 3D TV (again), few findings:

12 Nov 2011 6:55pm GMT

Paul 'pfalcon' Sokolovsky: Hacking Luxeon SP-1

I finally going to get Arduino, and while I'm choosing flavor and waiting for it, I can't help but disassembling all devices I have at home, each time speaking: "This must have Arduino inside!" (meaning of course that I expect it to be based on general-purpose MCU). Gosh, I usually get "blob chip" (uncased chip with blob of epoxy on top).

Well, I finally had my expectations fulfilled - Luxeon SP-1 voltage stabilizer/cutter features ATMEGA48V-10PU (Flash: 4k, EEPROM: 256, RAM:512). Not only that, it is installed in DIP socket! Buy from Luxeon, they're hacker-friendly ;-).

I bought the device actually for a wattmeter it features (which fact is hard to figure out from common specs found in the shops, I accidentally read somebody mentioning it on a forum). The wattmeter is of course not bright - for a lamp rated 100W it shows 88W, and for more powerful equipment (like perforator) understates wattage even more (maybe it's difference between real and apparent power factor).

Still, for $17 you get Arudino-alike with voltage/current sensor and hacking possibility. Woot!

BOM:
High-power board:

MCU board:


12 Nov 2011 5:58pm GMT

10 Nov 2011

feedPlanet Linux-to-go

Paul 'pfalcon' Sokolovsky: Links for November 2011

Kindle:


Linux kernel module tricks:

10 Nov 2011 3:21pm GMT

feedAndroid Forums

Latest action game INC from OrangePixel now available!

From the developer of Meganoid and Stardash comes a new action arcade game: INC! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9j5OEG-3RyM Get it from the...

10 Nov 2011 9:31am GMT

Free online video chat

More than 1000 broadcast cameras for you online - the most incendiary models in Russia. 1000 girls, 1000, the temptations, 1000, full of desire - all...

10 Nov 2011 7:48am GMT

Layout problem

Hi Friends I decided to work with a tab layout application. Program consist of 3 tabs and a button. I like to place the button below the tab. ...

10 Nov 2011 5:20am GMT

19 Oct 2011

feedPlanet OpenEZX

Antonio Ospite: Gnome 3: go to Shell? Not just yet, thanks.

In Debian Unstable the transition to Gnome 3 is taking place; when Gnome 3.0 firstly came out some unnamed geeky users complained loudly about the design decisions of the development team to push strongly towards gnome-shell as a new default UI; gnome-shell was designed focusing on usability (usability is a metric relative to a certain target audience BTW) and simplicity, hiding a lot of details from the users. Obviously you can never make everyone happy so some of us simply happened to be "out of target": you know us computer people (*cough cough*), we like to be in charge and control The Machine... I must admit I still don't have a definitive opinion about the gnome-shell concept, for now I just know that it does not suit me; I am going to try it eventually, maybe I'll get used to it, but in the mean time I need my desktop back just like I shaped it through the years; can this be done without loosing all the good Gnome technologies (Empathy over all of them)?

To be completely fair I have to say that there is little to complain about with Gnome developers, we can still get our good old GNOME desktop fully back by using the fall-back mode based on gnome-panel and live happily ever after, let's take a look at how this can be accomplished.

NOTE: GNOME people state that the fall-back mode is meant for systems with older graphic cards which cannot run gnome-shell, however it can very well be seen as a good opportunity for those who do not want to run gnome-shell just yet.

Getting back to the topic: some minor touches are needed to make the panel look more like what we are used to, maybe some of these settings could even become default for fall-back mode, we'll see.

First, enable fall-back mode (on Debian there is a dedicated session you can choose from the Log-in Manager for that) and change some desktop settings, in a terminal type:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.session session-name 'gnome-fallback'
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface 'menus-have-icons' true
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface 'buttons-have-icons' true
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background 'show-desktop-icons' true

gnome-tweak-tool can be used for some of these settings like shown in the attached images.

Then rearrange the applets on the panel as you please (use Alt-RightClick to access the panel properties), and fix the theming using this patch to have a light panel again (against gnome-themes-standard=3.0.2-1):

$ mkdir $HOME/.themes
$ cd $HOME/.themes
$ cp -r /usr/share/themes/Adwaita Adwaita-fallback
$ cd Adwaita-fallback
$ patch -p1 < $HOME/adwaita-fallback-panel-theme.patch
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface 'gtk-theme' 'Adwaita-fallback'

Some final touches for the Metacity window manager and to the clock applet, and we are all set:

$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /apps/metacity/general/focus_mode mouse
$ gconftool-2 --type boolean --set /apps/metacity/general/compositing_manager true
$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /apps/panel3-applets/clock/custom_format '<span color="#333">%a %d %b</span> <b>%H:%M</b>'
$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /apps/panel3-applets/clock/format custom

Ah, in the new gnome-panel based on Gtk3 there are still some details to take care of, I hope issues like that will be addressed and that the panel will be supported for quite some time.

Attached images:
Gnome Shell default look on Debian
gnome-tweak-tool show desktop icons
Gnome 3 fall-back mode default look on Debian
Gnome 3 fall-back mode applets rearranged
Gnome 3 fall-back mode rethemed to have a light panel
Attached files:
text/x-diff iconAdwaita theme patch for fall-back mode

19 Oct 2011 9:37pm GMT

09 Jun 2011

feedPlanet OpenEZX

Michael Lauer: The Eagle Has Landed!

After letting us wait for a bit longer than scheduled (13 days), the hospital initiated the contractions. For the first couple of hours, everything went just perfect, but then the little one got stuck on the way and we had to resort to a cesarean section. Lara Marie Lauer was born 8th of June at 04:41 (AM) with 3460 gramms and 49 cm.

Mummy was still on intensive care and so they gave her to me. I can't express the feelings I had in this very moment. I'm still kind of overwhelmed every time I see her. Thanks for all of you who waited anxiously with me and those who prayed for us. The most important tasks for the near future is getting Mummy to recover and Lara Marie to become accustomed to us and the rest of the outside world.

Please bear with me if in the next time I'm not as responsive as usually :)

Lara Marie Lauer

09 Jun 2011 4:06pm GMT

30 May 2011

feedPlanet OpenEZX

Michael Lauer: German Post on time!

And now for something completely different… while we are all waiting for my baby to arrive (who was scheduled for 25th of May), she just received her first greeting card - together with a personalized bib and a towel (with integrated hood - pretty fancy!) from my good friends at #openmoko-cdevel.

Guys, seeing this card was very heartwarming - it means a lot to me that you share my anticipation, thanks a lot! And I'm 100% sure she will appreciate her gifts… now let's cross fingers it won't take much longer… waiting is the hardest part of it :)

Yours,

Mickey.

30 May 2011 8:54am GMT