27 Jul 2016

feedTalkAndroid

[Deal] Google starts up its Back to School discounts

Google is starting up some of its back to school promotions in the Google Store, offering discounts on Chromebooks and smartphones alike. First up, Google is offering up to $30 off on select Chromebooks, with one of those being the Acer Chromebook 14. It certainly isn't a steep discount, but is nice to take a […]


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27 Jul 2016 12:30am GMT

26 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Introducing new app categories -- From Art to Autos to Dating -- to help users better find your apps

Posted by By Sarah Karam, Google Play Apps Business Development

With more than 1 billion active users in 190 countries around the world, Google Play continues to be an important distribution platform for you to build a global audience. To help you get your apps in front of more users, it's important to make them more quickly and easily discoverable in Google Play. That's why we rolled out major features, such as Search Ads, Indie Corner, store listing experiments, and more, over the past year.

To improve the overall search experience, we're introducing new app categories and renaming a few existing ones, making them more comprehensive and relevant to what users are looking for today.

The new categories include:

In addition, the "Transportation" category will be renamed "Maps & Navigation," and the "Media & Video" category will be renamed "Video Players & Editors."

To select a new category for your app or game

  1. Sign in to your Google Play Developer Console.
  2. Select an app.
  3. On the left menu, click Store Listing.
  4. Under "Categorization," select an application type and category.
  5. Near the top of the page, click Save draft (new apps) or Submit update (existing apps).

Newly added categories will be available on Google Play within 60 days. If you choose a newly added category for an app before the category is available for users, your current app category may change. See additional details and view our full list of categories in the Help Center.

26 Jul 2016 10:14pm GMT

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Don’t buy the Moto Z if you want monthly security patches

There's something you should know before you buy the Moto Z or Moto Z Force: software updates are going to be hard to come by. Hit the break for details. Just five days ago, Lenovo stated the Moto Z and Moto Z Force will get software updates containing patches from the Android Security Bulletin; however, […]


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26 Jul 2016 8:05pm GMT

Best office apps

From small, at-home businesses to multi-billion dollar companies, modern technology is taking over. Your favorite coffee shop has you sign a tablet with your finger, and who even brings a pen and paper to meetings anymore? Whatever you do, whether you're a small business owner, or someone working for a corporate company, or even the […]


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26 Jul 2016 6:35pm GMT

[TA Deals] Save 48% on a bone conduction Bluetooth headset

Phones are ditching the 3.5mm headphone jack, so if you haven't already moved to Bluetooth headphones, now's a great time to consider making the switch. If you are interested, we've got a solid deal that shave nearly half the price off of a pair of KOAR bone conduction wireless headphones. Bone conduction headphones aren't brand […]


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26 Jul 2016 6:00pm GMT

BlackBerry DTEK50 Android phone launches as ‘most secure’

When BlackBerry was flying high in its heyday, one of the benefits of the devices was how well they played with corporate IT environments, especially the heightened security requirements. Since then the company has tumbled, but recently has been trying to make a comeback on the back of Android powered devices. Today BlackBerry officially announced […]


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26 Jul 2016 5:08pm GMT

Moto Z & Moto Z Force review: Maybe be the DROID you’re looking for

The Moto Z and Moto Z Force are Lenovo's first crack at the high-end smartphone market since acquiring Motorola, and they'll likely be a make-or-break phone for Lenovo's chance at being a big player in the premium U.S. market. Both phones are touted as extremely high-end devices with unique modular accessories called Moto Mods, and […]


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26 Jul 2016 4:59pm GMT

New images show off BlackBerry’s upcoming Android phone

BlackBerry has yet to officially announce its upcoming and second Android-powered smartphone, but a product page for the device was accidentally published online and showed us some new images. Known as the BlackBerry Neon, or DTEK50, this smartphone will come with a mix of some relatively midrange specs. Powered by a Snapdragon 617 processor and 3GB of RAM, […]


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26 Jul 2016 3:15pm GMT

T-Mobile’s Binge On finally hits 100 available services

Binge On launched about eight months ago, and since then it's become one of T-Mobile's staple features. John Legere is quick to promote and advertise the feature, and for good reason. Most features like that are only as good as the services they offer, which is why it's so important that T-Mobile get major players […]


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26 Jul 2016 2:54pm GMT

Twitter live streaming expands to MLB, NHL and a nightly highlight show

Twitter is known for the immediacy of the content that is available on the platform, a position that helps it maintain a certain level of uniqueness. Nevertheless, the company continues to explore ways to stay relevant in the battle for social media eyeballs. One way has been to increase the availability of live streaming content. […]


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26 Jul 2016 3:47am GMT

Cyanogen’s Kondik says company isn’t going anywhere

Over this past weekend reports surfaced that Cyanogen Inc, the company that was spun off from the CyanogenMod operating system project, was going to stop work on the operating system and pivot to producing standalone apps. Characterizing those reports as a "circus of misinformation" Cyanogen's Steve Kondik took to the CyanogenMod blog to assure the world […]


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26 Jul 2016 1:57am GMT

22 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Improvements for smaller app downloads on Google Play

Posted by Anthony Morris, SWE Google Play

Google Play continues to grow rapidly, as Android users installed over 65 billion apps in the last year from the Google Play Store. We're also seeing developers move to update their apps more frequently to push great new content, patch security vulnerabilities, and iterate quickly on user feedback.

However, many users are sensitive to the amount of data they use, especially if they are not on Wi-Fi. Google Play is investing in improvements to reduce the data that needs to be transferred for app installs and updates, while making data cost more transparent to users.

Read on to understand the updates and learn some tips for ways to optimize the size of your APK.

New Delta algorithm to reduce the size of app updates

For approximately 98% of app updates from the Play Store, only changes (deltas) to APK files are downloaded and merged with the existing files, reducing the size of updates. Google Play has used delta algorithms since 2012, and we recently rolled out an additional delta algorithm, bsdiff (created by Colin Percival1), that our experimentation shows can reduce delta size by up to 50% or more compared to the previous algorithm for some APKs. Bsdiff is specifically targeted to produce more efficient deltas of native libraries by taking advantage of the specific ways in which compiled native code changes between versions. To be most effective, native libraries should be stored uncompressed (compression interferes with delta algorithms).

An example from Chrome:

Patch Description Previous patch size Bsdiff Size
M46 to M47 major update 22.8 MB 12.9 MB
M47 minor update 15.3 MB 3.6 MB

Apps that don't have uncompressed native libraries can see a 5% decrease in size on average, compared to the previous delta algorithm.

Applying the delta algorithm to APK Expansion Files to further reduce update size

APK Expansion Files allow you to include additional large files up to 2GB in size (e.g. high resolution graphics or media files) with your app, which is especially popular with games. We have recently expanded our delta and compression algorithms to apply to these APK Expansion Files in addition to APKs, reducing the download size of initial installs by 12%, and updates by 65% on average. APK Expansion file patches use the xdelta algorithm.

Clearer size information in the Play Store

Alongside the improvements to reduce download size, we also made information displayed about data used and download sizes in the Play Store clearer. You can now see actual download sizes, not the APK file size, in the Play Store. If you already have an app, you will only see the update size. These changes are rolling out now.


  1. Colin Percival, Naive differences of executable code, http://www.daemonology.net/bsdiff/, 2003.

Example 1: Showing new "Download size" of APK
Example 2: Showing new "Update size" of APK

Tips to reduce your download sizes

1. Optimize for the right size measurements: Users care about download size (i.e. how many bytes are transferred when installing/updating an app), and they care about disk size (i.e. how much space the app takes up on disk). It's important to note that neither of these are the same as the original APK file size nor necessarily correlated.


Chrome example:

Compressed Native Library Uncompressed Native Library
APK Size 39MB 52MB (+25%)
Download size (install) 29MB 29MB (no change)
Download size (update) 29MB 21MB (-29%)
Disk size 71MB 52MB (-26%)


Chrome found that initial download size remained the same by not compressing the native library in their APK, while the APK size increased, because Google Play already performs compression for downloads. They also found that the update size decreased, as deltas are more effective with uncompressed files, and disk size decreased as you no longer need an compressed copy of the native library. However, please note, native libraries should only be uncompressed when the minimum SDK version for an APK is 23 (Marshmallow) or later.

2. Reduce your APK size: Remove unnecessary data from the APK like unused resources and code.

3. Optimize parts of your APK to make them smaller: Using more efficient file formats, for example by using WebP instead of JPEG, or by using Proguard to remove unused code.

Read more about reducing APK sizes and watch the I/O 2016 session 'Putting Your App on a Diet' to learn from Wojtek Kaliciński, about how to reduce the size of your APK.

22 Jul 2016 5:55pm GMT

20 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Connecting your App to a Wi-Fi Device

Posted by Rich Hyndman, Android Developer Advocate

With the growth of the Internet of Things, connecting Android applications to Wi-Fi enabled devices is becoming more and more common. Whether you're building an app for a remote viewfinder, to set up a connected light bulb, or to control a quadcopter, if it's Wi-Fi based you will need to connect to a hotspot that may not have Internet connectivity.

From Lollipop onwards the OS became a little more intelligent, allowing multiple network connections and not routing data to networks that don't have Internet connectivity. That's very useful for users as they don't lose connectivity when they're near Wi-Fis with captive portals. Data routing APIs were added for developers, so you can ensure that only the appropriate app traffic is routed over the Wi-Fi connection to the external device.

To make the APIs easier to understand, it is good to know that there are 3 sets of networks available to developers:

In all versions of Android you start by scanning for available Wi-Fi networks with WiFiManager#startScan, iterate through the ScanResults looking for the SSID of your external Wi-Fi device. Once you've found it you can check if it is already a configured network using WifiManager#getConfiguredNetworks and iterating through the WifiConfigurations returned, matching on SSID. It's worth noting that the SSIDs of the configured networks are enclosed in double quotes, whilst the SSIDs returned in ScanResults are not.

If your network is configured you can obtain the network ID from the WifiConfiguration object. Otherwise you can configure it using WifiManager#addNetwork and keep track of the network id that is returned.

To connect to the Wi-Fi network, register a BroadcastReceiver that listens for WifiManager.NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION and then call WifiManager.enableNetwork (int netId, boolean disableOthers), passing in your network ID. The enableNetwork call disables all the other Wi-Fi access points for the next scan, locates the one you've requested and connects to it. When you receive the network broadcasts you can check with WifiManager#getConnectionInfo that you're successfully connected to the correct network. But, on Lollipop and above, if that network doesn't have internet connectivity network, requests will not be routed to it.

Routing network requests

To direct all the network requests from your app to an external Wi-Fi device, call ConnectivityManager#setProcessDefaultNetwork on Lollipop devices, and on Marshmallow call ConnectivityManager#bindProcessToNetwork instead, which is a direct API replacement. Note that these calls require android.permission.INTERNET; otherwise they will just return false.

Alternatively, if you'd like to route some of your app traffic to the Wi-Fi device and some to the Internet over the mobile network:

Now you can keep your users connected whilst they benefit from your innovative Wi-Fi enabled products.

20 Jul 2016 5:21pm GMT

Android Developer Story: StoryToys finds success in the ‘Family’ section on Google Play

Posted by Lily Sheringham, Google Play team

Based in Dublin, Ireland, StoryToys is a leading publisher of interactive books and games for children. Like most kids' app developers, they faced the challenges of engaging with the right audiences to get their content discovered. Since the launch of the Family section on Google Play, StoryToys has experienced an uplift of 270% in revenue and an increase of 1300% in downloads.

Hear Emmet O'Neill, Chief Product Officer, and Gavin Barrett, Commercial Director, discuss how the Family section creates a trusted and creative space for families to find new content. Also hear how beta testing, localized pricing and more, has allowed StoryToy's flagship app, My Very Hungry Caterpillar, to significantly increase engagement and revenue.

Learn more about Google Play for Families and get the Playbook for Developers app to stay up-to-date with more features and best practices that will help you grow a successful business on Google Play.

20 Jul 2016 4:21pm GMT

19 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Strictly Enforced Verified Boot with Error Correction

Posted by Sami Tolvanen, Software Engineer

Overview

Android uses multiple layers of protection to keep users safe. One of these layers is verified boot, which improves security by using cryptographic integrity checking to detect changes to the operating system. Android has alerted about system integrity since Marshmallow, but starting with devices first shipping with Android 7.0, we require verified boot to be strictly enforcing. This means that a device with a corrupt boot image or verified partition will not boot or will boot in a limited capacity with user consent. Such strict checking, though, means that non-malicious data corruption, which previously would be less visible, could now start affecting process functionality more.

By default, Android verifies large partitions using the dm-verity kernel driver, which divides the partition into 4 KiB blocks and verifies each block when read, against a signed hash tree. A detected single byte corruption will therefore result in an entire block becoming inaccessible when dm-verity is in enforcing mode, leading to the kernel returning EIO errors to userspace on verified partition data access.

This post describes our work in improving dm-verity robustness by introducing forward error correction (FEC), and explains how this allowed us to make the operating system more resistant to data corruption. These improvements are available to any device running Android 7.0 and this post reflects the default implementation in AOSP that we ship on our Nexus devices.

Error-correcting codes

Using forward error correction, we can detect and correct errors in source data by shipping redundant encoding data generated using an error-correcting code. The exact number of errors that can be corrected depends on the code used and the amount of space allocated for the encoding data.

Reed-Solomon is one of the most commonly used error-correcting code families, and is readily available in the Linux kernel, which makes it an obvious candidate for dm-verity. These codes can correct up to ⌊t/2⌋ unknown errors and up to t known errors, also called erasures, when t encoding symbols are added.

A typical RS(255, 223) code that generates 32 bytes of encoding data for every 223 bytes of source data can correct up to 16 unknown errors in each 255 byte block. However, using this code results in ~15% space overhead, which is unacceptable for mobile devices with limited storage. We can decrease the space overhead by sacrificing error correction capabilities. An RS(255, 253) code can correct only one unknown error, but also has an overhead of only 0.8%.

An additional complication is that block-based storage corruption often occurs for an entire block and sometimes spans multiple consecutive blocks. Because Reed-Solomon is only able to recover from a limited number of corrupted bytes within relatively short encoded blocks, a naive implementation is not going to be very effective without a huge space overhead.

Recovering from consecutive corrupted blocks

In the changes we made to dm-verity for Android 7.0, we used a technique called interleaving to allow us to recover not only from a loss of an entire 4 KiB source block, but several consecutive blocks, while significantly reducing the space overhead required to achieve usable error correction capabilities compared to the naive implementation.

Efficient interleaving means mapping each byte in a block to a separate Reed-Solomon code, with each code covering N bytes across the corresponding N source blocks. A trivial interleaving where each code covers a consecutive sequence of N blocks already makes it possible for us to recover from the corruption of up to (255 - N) / 2 blocks, which for RS(255, 223) would mean 64 KiB, for example.

An even better solution is to maximize the distance between the bytes covered by the same code by spreading each code over the entire partition, thereby increasing the maximum number of consecutive corrupted blocks an RS(255, N) code can handle on a partition consisting of T blocks to ⌈T/N⌉ × (255 - N) / 2.

Interleaving with distance D and block size B.


An additional benefit of interleaving, when combined with the integrity verification already performed by dm-verity, is that we can tell exactly where the errors are in each code. Because each byte of the code covers a different source block-and we can verify the integrity of each block using the existing dm-verity metadata-we know which of the bytes contain errors. Being able to pinpoint erasure locations allows us to effectively double our error correction performance to at most ⌈T/N⌉ × (255 - N) consecutive blocks.

For a ~2 GiB partition with 524256 4 KiB blocks and RS(255, 253), the maximum distance between the bytes of a single code is 2073 blocks. Because each code can recover from two erasures, using this method of interleaving allows us to recover from up to 4146 consecutive corrupted blocks (~16 MiB). Of course, if the encoding data itself gets corrupted or we lose more than two of the blocks covered by any single code, we cannot recover anymore.

While making error correction feasible for block-based storage, interleaving does have the side effect of making decoding slower, because instead of reading a single block, we need to read multiple blocks spread across the partition to recover from an error. Fortunately, this is not a huge issue when combined with dm-verity and solid-state storage as we only need to resort to decoding if a block is actually corrupted, which still is rather rare, and random access reads are relatively fast even if we have to correct errors.

Conclusion

Strictly enforced verified boot improves security, but can also reduce reliability by increasing the impact of disk corruption that may occur on devices due to software bugs or hardware issues.

The new error correction feature we developed for dm-verity makes it possible for devices to recover from the loss of up to 16-24 MiB of consecutive blocks anywhere on a typical 2-3 GiB system partition with only 0.8% space overhead and no performance impact unless corruption is detected. This improves the security and reliability of devices running Android 7.0.

19 Jul 2016 8:42pm GMT

18 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Final Developer Preview before Android 7.0 Nougat begins rolling out

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

As we close in on the public rollout of Android 7.0 Nougat to devices later this summer, today we're releasing Developer Preview 5, the last milestone of this preview series. Last month's Developer Preview included the final APIs for Nougat; this preview gives developers the near-final system updates for all of the supported preview devices, helping you get your app ready for consumers.

Here's a quick rundown of what's included in the final Developer Preview of Nougat:

Working with this latest Developer Preview, you should make sure your app handles all of the system behavior changes in Android N, like Doze on the Go, background optimizations, screen zoom, permissions changes, and more. Plus, you can take advantage of new developer features in Android N such as Multi-window support, Direct Reply and other notifications enhancements, Direct boot, new emojis and more.

Publish your apps to alpha, beta or production channels in Google Play

After testing your apps with Developer Preview 5 you should publish the updates to Google Play soon. We recommend compiling against, and optionally targeting, API 24 and then publishing to your alpha, beta, or production channels in the Google Play Developer Console. A great strategy to do this is using Google Play's beta testing feature to get early feedback from a small group of users -- including Developer Preview users - and then doing a staged rollout as you release the updated app to all users.

How to get Developer Preview 5

If you are already enrolled in the Android Beta program, your devices will get the Developer Preview 5 update right away, no action is needed on your part. If you aren't yet enrolled in Android Beta, the easiest way to get started is by visiting android.com/beta and opt-in your eligible Android phone or tablet -- you'll soon receive this preview update over-the-air. As always, you can also download and flash this update manually. The Nougat Developer Preview is available for Nexus 6, Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P, Nexus 9, and Pixel C devices, as well as General Mobile 4G [Android One] devices.

Thanks so much for all of your feedback so far. Please continue to share feedback or requests either in the N Developer Preview issue tracker, N Preview Developer community, or Android Beta community as we work towards the consumer release later this summer. Android Nougat is almost here!

Also, the Android engineering team will host a Reddit AMA on r/androiddev to answer all your technical questions about the platform tomorrow, July 19 from 12-2 PM (Pacific Time). We look forward to addressing your questions!

18 Jul 2016 5:00pm GMT

14 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Announcing the Google Play Indie Games Festival in San Francisco, Sept. 24

Posted by Jamil Moledina, Google Play, Games Strategic Lead

If you're an indie game developer, you know that games are a powerful medium of expression of art, whimsy, and delight. Being on Google Play can help you reach over a billion users and build a successful, global business. That's why we recently introduced programs, like the Indie Corner, to help more gamers discover your works of art.

To further celebrate and showcase the passion and innovation of indie game developers, we're hosting the Google Play Indie Games Festival at the Terra Gallery in San Francisco, on September 24.

This is a great opportunity for you to showcase your indie title to the public, increase your network, and compete to win great prizes, such as Tango devices, free tickets for Google I/O 2017, and Google ad campaign support. Admission will be free and players will get the chance to play and vote on their favorites.

If you're interested in showcasing your game, we're accepting submissions now through August 14. We'll then select high-quality games that are both innovative and fun for the festival. Submissions are open to US and Canadian developers with 15 or less full time staff. Only games published on or after January 1, 2016 or those to be published by December 31, 2016 are eligible. See complete rules.

We encourage virtual reality and augmented reality game submissions that use the Google VR SDK and the Tango Tablet Development Kit.

At the end of August, we'll announce the group of indies to be featured at the festival.

You can learn more about the event here. We can't wait to see what innovative and fun experiences you share with us!

14 Jul 2016 4:01pm GMT

12 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Android Wear 2.0 Developer Preview 2

Posted by Hoi Lam, Android Wear Developer Advocate

At Google I/O 2016, we launched the Android Wear 2.0 Developer Preview, which gives developers early access to the next major release of Android Wear. Since I/O, feedback from the developer community has helped us identify bugs and shape our product direction. Thank you!

Today, we are releasing the second developer preview with new functionalities and bug fixes. Prior to the consumer release, we plan to release additional updates, so please send us your feedback early and often. Please keep in mind that this preview is a work in progress, and is not yet intended for daily use.

What's new?

 public class MainActivity extends Activity {  
   ...    
   @Override /* KeyEvent.Callback */  
   public boolean onKeyDown(int keyCode, KeyEvent event) {  
     switch (keyCode) {  
       case KeyEvent.KEYCODE_NAVIGATE_NEXT:  
         Log.d(TAG, "Next");  
         break;  
       case KeyEvent.KEYCODE_NAVIGATE_PREVIOUS:  
         Log.d(TAG, "Previous");  
         break;  
     }  
     // If you did not handle, then let it be handled by the next possible element as deemed by  
     // Activity.  
     return super.onKeyDown(keyCode, event);  
   }  
 }  

Get started and give us feedback!

The Android Wear 2.0 Developer Preview includes an updated SDK with tools and system images for testing on the official Android emulator, the LG Watch Urbane 2nd Edition LTE, and the Huawei Watch.

To get started, follow these steps:

  1. Take a video tour of the Android Wear 2.0 developer preview
  2. Update to Android Studio v2.1.1 or later
  3. Visit the Android Wear 2.0 Developer Preview site for downloads and documentation
  4. Get the emulator system images through the SDK Manager or download the device system images from the developer preview downloads page
  5. Test your app with your supported device or emulator
  6. Give us feedback

We will update this developer preview over the next few months based on your feedback. The sooner we hear from you, the more we can include in the final release, so don't be shy!

12 Jul 2016 5:26pm GMT

07 Jul 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Changes to Trusted Certificate Authorities in Android Nougat

Posted by Chad Brubaker, Android Security team

In Android Nougat, we've changed how Android handles trusted certificate authorities (CAs) to provide safer defaults for secure app traffic. Most apps and users should not be affected by these changes or need to take any action. The changes include:

For more details on these changes and what to do if you're affected by them, read on.

Safe and easy APIs

Apps have always been able customize which certificate authorities they trust. However, we saw apps making mistakes due to the complexities of the Java TLS APIs. To address this we improved the APIs for customizing trust.

User-added CAs

Protection of all application data is a key goal of the Android application sandbox. Android Nougat changes how applications interact with user- and admin-supplied CAs. By default, apps that target API level 24 will-by design-not honor such CAs unless the app explicitly opts in. This safe-by-default setting reduces application attack surface and encourages consistent handling of network and file-based application data.

Customizing trusted CAs

Customizing the CAs your app trusts on Android Nougat is easy using the Network Security Config. Trust can be specified across the whole app or only for connections to certain domains, as needed. Below are some examples for trusting a custom or user-added CA, in addition to the system CAs. For more examples and details, see the full documentation.

Trusting custom CAs for debugging

To allow your app to trust custom CAs only for local debugging, include something like this in your Network Security Config. The CAs will only be trusted while your app is marked as debuggable.

<network-security-config>  
      <debug-overrides>  
           <trust-anchors>  
                <!-- Trust user added CAs while debuggable only -->
                <certificates src="user" />  
           </trust-anchors>  
      </domain-config>  
 </network-security-config>

Trusting custom CAs for a domain

To allow your app to trust custom CAs for a specific domain, include something like this in your Network Security Config.

<network-security-config>  
      <domain-config>  
           <domain includeSubdomains="true">internal.example.com</domain>  
           <trust-anchors>  
                <!-- Only trust the CAs included with the app  
                     for connections to internal.example.com -->  
                <certificates src="@raw/cas" />  
           </trust-anchors>  
      </domain-config>  
 </network-security-config>

Trusting user-added CAs for some domains

To allow your app to trust user-added CAs for multiple domains, include something like this in your Network Security Config.

<network-security-config>  
      <domain-config>  
           <domain includeSubdomains="true">userCaDomain.com</domain>  
           <domain includeSubdomains="true">otherUserCaDomain.com</domain>  
           <trust-anchors>  
                  <!-- Trust preinstalled CAs -->  
                  <certificates src="system" />  
                  <!-- Additionally trust user added CAs -->  
                  <certificates src="user" />  
           </trust-anchors>  
      </domain-config>  
 </network-security-config>

Trusting user-added CAs for all domains except some

To allow your app to trust user-added CAs for all domains, except for those specified, include something like this in your Network Security Config.

<network-security-config>  
      <base-config>  
           <trust-anchors>  
                <!-- Trust preinstalled CAs -->  
                <certificates src="system" />  
                <!-- Additionally trust user added CAs -->  
                <certificates src="user" />  
           </trust-anchors>  
      </base-config>  
      <domain-config>  
           <domain includeSubdomains="true">sensitive.example.com</domain>  
           <trust-anchors>  
                <!-- Only allow sensitive content to be exchanged  
             with the real server and not any user or  
    admin configured MiTMs -->  
                <certificates src="system" />  
           <trust-anchors>  
      </domain-config>  
 </network-security-config>

Trusting user-added CAs for all secure connections

To allow your app to trust user-added CAs for all secure connections, add this in your Network Security Config.

<network-security-config>  
      <base-config>  
            <trust-anchors>  
                <!-- Trust preinstalled CAs -->  
                <certificates src="system" />  
                <!-- Additionally trust user added CAs -->  
                <certificates src="user" />  
           </trust-anchors>  
      </base-config>  
 </network-security-config>

Standardized set of system-trusted CAs

To provide a more consistent and more secure experience across the Android ecosystem, beginning with Android Nougat, compatible devices trust only the standardized system CAs maintained in AOSP.

Previously, the set of preinstalled CAs bundled with the system could vary from device to device. This could lead to compatibility issues when some devices did not include CAs that apps needed for connections as well as potential security issues if CAs that did not meet our security requirements were included on some devices.

What if I have a CA I believe should be included on Android?

First, be sure that your CA needs to be included in the system. The preinstalled CAs are only for CAs that meet our security requirements because they affect the secure connections of most apps on the device. If you need to add a CA for connecting to hosts that use that CA, you should instead customize your apps and services that connect to those hosts. For more information, see the Customizing trusted CAs section above.

If you operate a CA that you believe should be included in Android, first complete the Mozilla CA Inclusion Process and then file a feature request against Android to have the CA added to the standardized set of system CAs.

07 Jul 2016 10:30pm GMT

30 Jun 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Building for Billions

Posted by Sam Dutton, Ankur Kotwal, Developer Advocates; Liz Yepsen, Program Manager

'TOP-UP WARNING.' 'NO CONNECTION.' 'INSUFFICIENT BANDWIDTH TO PLAY THIS RESOURCE.'

These are common warnings for many smartphone users around the world.

To build products that work for billions of users, developers must address key challenges: limited or intermittent connectivity, device compatibility, varying screen sizes, high data costs, short-lived batteries. We first presented developers.google.com/billions and related Android and Web resources at Google I/O last month, and today you can watch the video presentations about Android or the Web.

These best practices can help developers reach billions by delivering exceptional performance across a range of connections, data plans, and devices. g.co/dev/billions will help you:

Seamlessly transition between slow, intermediate, and offline environments

Your users move from place to place, from speedy wireless to patchy or expensive data. Manage these transitions by storing data, queueing requests, optimizing image handling, and performing core functions entirely offline.

Provide the right content for the right context

Keep context in mind - how and where do your users consume your content? Selecting text and media that works well across different viewport sizes, keeping text short (for scrolling on the go), providing a simple UI that doesn't distract from content, and removing redundant content can all increase perception of your app's quality while giving real performance gains like reduced data transfer. Once these practices are in place, localization options can grow audience reach and increase engagement.

Optimize for mobile hardware

Ensure your app or Web content is served and runs well for your widest possible addressable market, covering all actively used OS versions, while still following best practices, by testing on virtual or actual devices in target markets. Native Android apps should set minimum and target SDKs. Also, remember low cost phones have smaller amounts of RAM; apps should therefore adjust usage accordingly and minimize background running. For in-depth information on minimizing APK size, check out this series of Medium posts. On the Web, optimize JavaScript CPU usage, avoid raster image rendering, and minimize resource requests. Find out more here.

Reduce battery consumption

Low cost phones usually have shorter battery life. Users are sensitive to battery consumption levels and excessive consumption can lead to a high uninstall rate or avoidance of your site. Benchmark your battery usage against sessions on other pages or apps, or using tools such as Battery Historian, and avoid long-running processes which drain batteries.

Conserve data usage

Whatever you're building, conserve data usage in three simple steps: understand loading requirements, reduce the amount of data required for interaction, and streamline navigation so users get what they want quickly. Conserving data on behalf of your users (and with native apps, offering configurable network usage) helps retain data-sensitive users -- especially those on prepaid plans or contracts with limited data -- as even "unlimited" plans can become expensive when roaming or if unexpected fees are applied.

Have another insight, or a success launching in low-connectivity conditions or on low-cost devices? Let us know on our G+ post.

30 Jun 2016 9:32pm GMT

29 Jun 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

New video tips to help news publishers find success on Google Play

Posted by Tamzin Taylor - Strategic Partner Lead, Google Play

Today we have released a three-part video series 'Tips for your news app on Google Play', where you can find actionable tips and learn best practices for developing, launching and monetising a high quality news app. The video series accompanies the recently published News Publisher Playbook.

Watch the video series to learn:

  • 10 tips on how to design and develop your News app
  • 10 tips to help you launch your News app and start gaining readers
  • 10 tips to engage your readers and monetize your News app

You can also get the News Publisher Playbook on the Play Store to help you develop a successful news mobile strategy on Android. It includes tips on mobile website optimization, how to create a Google Play Newsstand edition, how to improve your native app, and more.

Give us your feedback

Once you've checked out the video series, we'd love to hear your feedback so we can continue to help you find success with and achieve your business objectives. Leave a comment or a thumbs up, and subscribe to the Android Developers YouTube channel!

Also, check out our other videos in in the Tips for Success on Google Play series, including the recent video on 10 tips to build an app for billions of users.

For more best practices to find success on Google Play, get the new Playbook for Developers app.

29 Jun 2016 4:57pm GMT

27 Jun 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Android changes for NDK developers

Posted by Dmitry Malykhanov, Developer Advocate

Related to other improvements to the Android platform, the dynamic linker in Android M and N has stricter requirements for writing clean, cross-platform compatible native code in order to load. It is necessary that an application's native code follows the rules and recommendations in order to ensure a smooth transition to recent Android releases.

Below we outline in detail each individual change related to native code loading, the consequences and steps you can take to avoid issues.

Required tools: there is an <arch>-linux-android-readelf binary (e.g. arm-linux-androideabi-readelf or i686-linux-android-readelf) for each architecture in the NDK (under toolchains/), but you can use readelf for any architecture, as we will be doing basic inspection only. On Linux you need to have the "binutils" package installed for readelf, and "pax-utils" for scanelf.

Private API (Enforced since API 24)

Native libraries must use only public API, and must not link against non-NDK platform libraries. Starting with API 24 this rule is enforced and applications are no longer able to load non-NDK platform libraries. The rule is enforced by the dynamic linker, so non-public libraries are not accessible regardless of the way code tries to load them: System.loadLibrary(...), DT_NEEDED entries, and direct calls to dlopen(...) will fail in exactly the same way.

Users should have a consistent app experience across updates, and developers shouldn't have to make emergency app updates to handle platform changes. For that reason, we recommend against using private C/C++ symbols. Private symbols aren't tested as part of the Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) that all Android devices must pass. They may not exist, or they may behave differently. This makes apps that use them more likely to fail on specific devices, or on future releases --- as many developers found when Android 6.0 Marshmallow switched from OpenSSL to BoringSSL.

In order to reduce the user impact of this transition, we've identified a set of libraries that see significant use from Google Play's most-installed apps, and that are feasible for us to support in the short term (including libandroid_runtime.so, libcutils.so, libcrypto.so, and libssl.so). In order to give you more time to transition, we will temporarily support these libraries; so if you see a warning that means your code will not work in a future release -- please fix it now!

$ readelf --dynamic libBroken.so | grep NEEDED
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libnativehelper.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libutils.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libstagefright_foundation.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libmedia_jni.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [liblog.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libdl.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libz.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libstdc++.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libm.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libc.so]

Potential problems: starting from API 24 the dynamic linker will not load private libraries, preventing the application from loading.

Resolution: rewrite your native code to rely only on public API. As a short term workaround, platform libraries without complex dependencies (libcutils.so) can be copied to the project. As a long term solution the relevant code must be copied to the project tree. SSL/Media/JNI internal/binder APIs should not be accessed from the native code. When necessary, native code should call appropriate public Java API methods.

A complete list of public libraries is available within the NDK, under platforms/android-API/usr/lib.

Note: SSL/crypto is a special case, applications must NOT use platform libcrypto and libssl libraries directly, even on older platforms. All applications should use GMS Security Provider to ensure they are protected from known vulnerabilities.

Missing Section Headers (Enforced since API 24)

Each ELF file has additional information contained in the section headers. These headers must be present now, because the dynamic linker uses them for sanity checking. Some developers try to strip them in an attempt to obfuscate the binary and prevent reverse engineering. (This doesn't really help because it is possible to reconstruct the stripped information using widely-available tools.)

$ readelf --header libBroken.so | grep 'section headers'
  Start of section headers:          0 (bytes into file)
  Size of section headers:           0 (bytes)
  Number of section headers:         0
$

Resolution: remove the extra steps from your build that strip section headers.

Text Relocations (Enforced since API 23)

Starting with API 23, shared objects must not contain text relocations. That is, the code must be loaded as is and must not be modified. Such an approach reduces load time and improves security.

The usual reason for text relocations is non-position independent hand-written assembler. This is not common. Use the scanelf tool as described in our documentation for further diagnostics:

$ scanelf -qT libTextRel.so
  libTextRel.so: (memory/data?) [0x15E0E2] in (optimized out: previous simd_broken_op1) [0x15E0E0]
  libTextRel.so: (memory/data?) [0x15E3B2] in (optimized out: previous simd_broken_op2) [0x15E3B0]
[skipped the rest]

If you have no scanelf tool available, it is possible to do a basic check with readelf instead, look for either a TEXTREL entry or the TEXTREL flag. Either alone is sufficient. (The value corresponding to the TEXTREL entry is irrelevant and typically 0 --- simply the presence of the TEXTREL entry declares that the .so contains text relocations). This example has both indicators present:

$ readelf --dynamic libTextRel.so | grep TEXTREL
 0x00000016 (TEXTREL)                    0x0
 0x0000001e (FLAGS)                      SYMBOLIC TEXTREL BIND_NOW
$

Note: it is technically possible to have a shared object with the TEXTREL entry/flag but without any actual text relocations. This doesn't happen with the NDK, but if you're generating ELF files yourself make sure you're not generating ELF files that claim to have text relocations, because the Android dynamic linker trusts the entry/flag.

Potential problems: Relocations enforce code pages being writable, and wastefully increase the number of dirty pages in memory. The dynamic linker has issued warnings about text relocations since Android K (API 19), but on API 23 and above it refuses to load code with text relocations.

Resolution: rewrite assembler to be position independent to ensure no text relocations are necessary. Check the Gentoo documentation for cookbook recipes.

Invalid DT_NEEDED Entries (Enforced since API 23)

While library dependencies (DT_NEEDED entries in the ELF headers) can be absolute paths, that doesn't make sense on Android because you have no control over where your library will be installed by the system. A DT_NEEDED entry should be the same as the needed library's SONAME, leaving the business of finding the library at runtime to the dynamic linker.

Before API 23, Android's dynamic linker ignored the full path, and used only the basename (the part after the last '/') when looking up the required libraries. Since API 23 the runtime linker will honor the DT_NEEDED exactly and so it won't be able to load the library if it is not present in that exact location on the device.

Even worse, some build systems have bugs that cause them to insert DT_NEEDED entries that point to a file on the build host, something that cannot be found on the device.

$ readelf --dynamic libSample.so | grep NEEDED
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libm.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libc.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libdl.so]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library:
[C:\Users\build\Android\ci\jni\libBroken.so]
$

Potential problems: before API 23 the DT_NEEDED entry's basename was used, but starting from API 23 the Android runtime will try to load the library using the path specified, and that path won't exist on the device. There are broken third-party toolchains/build systems that use a path on a build host instead of the SONAME.

Resolution: make sure all required libraries are referenced by SONAME only. It is better to let the runtime linker to find and load those libraries as the location may change from device to device.

Missing SONAME (Used since API 23)

Each ELF shared object ("native library") must have a SONAME (Shared Object Name) attribute. The NDK toolchain adds this attribute by default, so its absence indicates either a misconfigured alternative toolchain or a misconfiguration in your build system. A missing SONAME may lead to runtime issues such as the wrong library being loaded: the filename is used instead when this attribute is missing.

$ readelf --dynamic libWithSoName.so | grep SONAME
 0x0000000e (SONAME)                     Library soname: [libWithSoName.so]
$

Potential problems: namespace conflicts may lead to the wrong library being loaded at runtime, which leads to crashes when required symbols are not found, or you try to use an ABI-incompatible library that isn't the library you were expecting.

Resolution: the current NDK generates the correct SONAME by default. Ensure you're using the current NDK and that you haven't configured your build system to generate incorrect SONAME entries (using the -soname linker option).

Please remember, clean, cross-platform code built with a current NDK should have no issues on Android N. We encourage you to revise your native code build so that it produces correct binaries.

27 Jun 2016 10:44pm GMT

Android Mobile Vision restores operation and adds Text API

Posted by Michael Sipe, Product Manager

As an important framework for finding objects in photos and video, Mobile Vision operation for Android devices is restored in Google Play Services v9.2.

This new version of Google Play Services fixes a download issue in Google Play Services v.9.0 that caused a service outage. See release notes for details.

We're also pleased to announce the Text API, a new component for Android Mobile Vision.

The Text API's optical character recognition technology reads Latin character text (e.g. English, Spanish, German, French, etc.) in photos and returns the text as well as the organizational structure (paragraphs, lines, words). Mobile apps can now:

If you want to get started quickly, you can try our codelab which will get Android developers reading text with their apps in under an hour.

Like the Mobile Vision Face and Barcode components, the Text API runs on-device and is suitable for real-time applications. For more information, check out the Mobile Vision Developer site.

27 Jun 2016 8:07pm GMT

Create Intelligent, Context-Aware Apps with the Google Awareness APIs

Posted by Bhavik Singh, Product Manager

Last month at Google I/O 2016 we announced the new Google Awareness APIs, enabling your apps to intelligently react to user context using snapshots and fences with minimal impact on system resources.

Today we're proud to announce that the Google Awareness API is available to all developers through Google Play services.

Using 7 different types of context-including location, weather, user activity, and nearby beacons-your app can better understand your users' current situations, and use this information to provide optimized and customized experiences.

The Awareness API offers two ways to take advantage of context signals within your app:

As a single, simplified surface, the Awareness APIs combine optimally processed context signals in new ways that were not previously possible, providing more accurate and insightful context cues, while also managing system resources to save battery and minimize bandwidth.

We've worked closely with some of our partners, who have already found amazing ways to integrate context awareness into their apps:

Trulia,an online residential real estate site, uses our Fence API to suggest open houses. When the weather is perfect and the user is walking around near a house they are interested in, Trulia sends a notification reminding them to stop by. This sort of tailored notification can help users engage with open houses at the perfect time for them.

SuperPlayer Music, on the other hand, uses our Snapshot API and Fence API to suggest the perfect music to match your mood. Whether you're just finishing up a run and beginning to stretch, setting off on a long car ride, or just getting to the gym, their assistant can understand your context and suggest the right playlist for you.

With our initial set of signals and our awesome partners, we're just getting started with the Awareness APIs. Join us on a journey to build tailored experiences within your apps, by getting started with the Google Awareness API developer documentation, and learn more by watching our Google I/O session


27 Jun 2016 5:18pm GMT

22 Jun 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Introducing the Android Basics Nanodegree

Posted by Shanea King-Roberson, Lead Program Manager Twitter: @shaneakr Instagram: @theshanea


Do you have an idea for an app but you don't know where to start? There are over 1 billion Android devices worldwide, providing a way for you to deliver your ideas to the right people at the right time. Google, in partnership with Udacity, is making Android development accessible and understandable to everyone, so that regardless of your background, you can learn to build apps that improve the lives of people around you.

Enroll in the new Android Basics Nanodegree. This series of courses and services teaches you how to build simple Android apps--even if you have little or no programming experience. Take a look at some of the apps built by our students:

The app "ROP Tutorial" built by student Arpy Vanyan raises awareness of a potentially blinding eye disorder called Retinopathy of Prematurity that can affect newborn babies.

And user Charles Tommo created an app called "Dr Malaria" that teaches people ways to prevent malaria.

With courses designed by Google, you can learn skills that are applicable to building apps that solve real world problems. You can learn at your own pace to use Android Studio (Google's official tool for Android app development) to design app user interfaces and implement user interactions using the Java programming language.

The courses walk you through step-by-step on how to build an order form for a coffee shop, an app to track pets in a shelter, an app that teaches vocabulary words from the Native American Miwok tribe, and an app on recent earthquakes in the world. At the end of the course, you will have an entire portfolio of apps to share with your friends and family.

Upon completing the Android Basics Nanodegree, you also have the opportunity to continue your learning with the Career-track Android Nanodegree (for intermediate developers). The first 50 participants to finish the Android Basics Nanodegree have a chance to win a scholarship for the Career-track Android Nanodegree. Please visit udacity.com/legal/scholarship for additional details and eligibility requirements. You now have a complete learning path to help you become a technology entrepreneur or most importantly, build very cool Android apps, for yourself, your communities, and even the world.

All of the individual courses that make up this Nanodegree are available online for no charge at udacity.com/google. In addition, Udacity provides paid services, including access to coaches, guidance on your project, help staying on track, career counseling, and a certificate upon completion for a fee.

You will be exposed to introductory computer science concepts in the Java programming language, as you learn the following skills.

To enroll in the Android Basics Nanodegree program, click here.

See you in class!

22 Jun 2016 5:03pm GMT

21 Jun 2016

feedAndroid Developers Blog

Improving Stability with Private C/C++ Symbol Restrictions in Android N

Posted by Dimitry Ivanov & Elliott Hughes, Software Engineers

As documented in the Android N behavioral changes, to protect Android users and apps from unforeseen crashes, Android N will restrict which libraries your C/C++ code can link against at runtime. As a result, if your app uses any private symbols from platform libraries, you will need to update it to either use the public NDK APIs or to include its own copy of those libraries. Some libraries are public: the NDK exposes libandroid, libc, libcamera2ndk, libdl, libGLES, libjnigraphics, liblog, libm, libmediandk, libOpenMAXAL, libOpenSLES, libstdc++, libvulkan, and libz as part of the NDK API. Other libraries are private, and Android N only allows access to them for platform HALs, system daemons, and the like. If you aren't sure whether your app uses private libraries, you can immediately check it for warnings on the N Developer Preview.

We're making this change because it's painful for users when their apps stop working after a platform update. Whether they blame the app developer or the platform, everybody loses. Users should have a consistent app experience across updates, and developers shouldn't have to make emergency app updates to handle platform changes. For that reason, we recommend against using private C/C++ symbols. Private symbols aren't tested as part of the Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) that all Android devices must pass. They may not exist, or they may behave differently. This makes apps that use them more likely to fail on specific devices, or on future releases - as many developers found when Android 6.0 Marshmallow switched from OpenSSL to BoringSSL.

You may be surprised that there's no STL in the list of NDK libraries. The three STL implementations included in the NDK - the LLVM libc++, the GNU STL, and libstlport - are intended to be bundled with your app, either by statically linking into your library, or by inclusion as a separate shared library. In the past, some developers have assumed that they didn't need to package the library because the OS itself had a copy. This assumption is incorrect: a particular STL implementation may disappear (as was the case with stlport, which was removed in Marshmallow), may never have been available (as is the case with the GNU STL), or it may change in ABI incompatible ways (as is the case with the LLVM libc++).

In order to reduce the user impact of this transition, we've identified a set of libraries that see significant use from Google Play's most-installed apps, and that are feasible for us to support in the short term (including libandroid_runtime.so, libcutils.so, libcrypto.so, and libssl.so). For legacy code in N, we will temporarily support these libraries in order to give you more time to transition. Note that we don't intend to continue this support in any future Android platform release, so if you see a warning that means your code will not work in a future release - please fix it now!

Table 1. What to expect if your app is linking against private native libraries.

Libraries App's targetSdkVersion Runtime access via dynamic linker Impact, N Developer Preview Impact, Final N Release Impact, future platform version
NDK Public Any Accessible
Private (graylist) <=23 Temporarily accessible Warning / Toast Warning Error
>=24 Restricted Error Error Error
Private (all other)> Any Restricted Error Error Error

What behavior will I see?

Please test your app during the N Previews.

N Preview behavior

Test your apps on the Developer Preview - if you see a toast like this one, your app is accessing private native APIs. Please fix your code soon!

N Final Release behavior

Future platform behavior

What do the errors look like?

Here's some example logcat output from an app that hasn't bumped its target SDK version (and so the restriction isn't fully enforced because this is only the developer preview):

03-21 17:07:51.502 31234 31234 W linker  : library "libandroid_runtime.so"
("/system/lib/libandroid_runtime.so") needed or dlopened by
"/data/app/com.popular-app.android-2/lib/arm/libapplib.so" is not accessible
for the namespace "classloader-namespace" - the access is temporarily granted
as a workaround for http://b/26394120

This is telling you that your library "libapplib.so" refers to the library "libandroid_runtime.so", which is a private library.

When Android N ships, or if you set your target SDK version to N now, you'll see something like this if you try to use System.loadLibrary from Java:

java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError: dlopen failed: library "libcutils.so"
("/system/lib/libcutils.so") needed or dlopened by "/system/lib/libnativeloader.so"
is not accessible for the namespace "classloader-namespace"
  at java.lang.Runtime.loadLibrary0(Runtime.java:977)
  at java.lang.System.loadLibrary(System.java:1602)

If you're using dlopen(3) from C/C++ you'll get a NULL return and dlerror(3) will return the same "dlopen failed..." string as shown above.

For more information about how to check if your app is using private symbols, see the FAQ on developer.android.com.

21 Jun 2016 8:33pm GMT

10 Nov 2011

feedAndroid Forums

Latest action game INC from OrangePixel now available!

From the developer of Meganoid and Stardash comes a new action arcade game: INC! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9j5OEG-3RyM Get it from the...

10 Nov 2011 9:31am GMT

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More than 1000 broadcast cameras for you online - the most incendiary models in Russia. 1000 girls, 1000, the temptations, 1000, full of desire - all...

10 Nov 2011 7:48am GMT

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Hi Friends I decided to work with a tab layout application. Program consist of 3 tabs and a button. I like to place the button below the tab. ...

10 Nov 2011 5:20am GMT

[ANDROID]5 New Live Wallpapers for ANDROID !

*1-) Spectrum ICS * Image: http://i.imgur.com/IjE5B.jpg *2-) Alien Shapes* Image: http://i.imgur.com/7hQHA.jpg

10 Nov 2011 12:50am GMT

09 Nov 2011

feedAndroid Forums

New to Android, thinking of getting Asus Transformer

Hey all, New to this site and Android. I'm a 50 year old fireman who has resisted the newest tech gadgets but am wanting a tablet for use at home....

09 Nov 2011 10:33pm GMT

Island Fortress - "reverse Angry Birds" (FREE GAME)

Island Fortress is a free physics based puzzle/construction game where player has to defend the treasure from the pirate's cannonballs....

09 Nov 2011 8:42pm GMT

Unlock Code Question (MyTouch 3G)

I have a question about using an unlock code with an HTC T-Mobile MyTouch 3G. So I got the phone from a guy on Craigslist, and I have AT&T. In order...

09 Nov 2011 8:28pm GMT

[Game] Mini-Bubbles

Free Mini-Bubbles Android Market Link: https://market.android.com/details?id=br.com.dotfive.minibubbles Pop the most bubbles you can within...

09 Nov 2011 6:39pm GMT

Top 6 Android Tablet For 2011

Well now a days we are seeing new tablets coming every day and we see new upcoming tablets leaks too! It's difficult to choose best one which works...

09 Nov 2011 4:15pm GMT

unlock code

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09 Nov 2011 2:56pm GMT