12 Dec 2019

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Xavier Mertens: [SANS ISC] Code & Data Reuse in the Malware Ecosystem

I published the following diary on isc.sans.edu: "Code & Data Reuse in the Malware Ecosystem":

In the past, I already had the opportunity to give some "security awareness" sessions to developers. One topic that was always debated is the reuse of existing code. Indeed, for a developer, it's tempting to not reinvent the wheel when somebody already wrote a piece of code that achieves the expected results. From a gain of time perspective, it's a win for the developers who can focus on other code. Of course, this can have side effects and introduce bugs, backdoors, etc… but it's not today's topic. Malware developers are also developers and have the same behavior. Code reuse has been already discussed several times… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] Code & Data Reuse in the Malware Ecosystem has been first published on /dev/random]

12 Dec 2019 12:15pm GMT

Mattias Geniar: The text adventure game of exiting a telnet session

We've all been there, right? You debug something, you try telnet to see if a port is open, and now you're stuck in a telnet session.

12 Dec 2019 12:00am GMT

11 Dec 2019

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Dries Buytaert: Acquia to acquire AgilOne to solve data challenges with AI

I'm excited to announce that Acquia has signed a definitive agreement to acquire AgilOne, a leading Customer Data Platform (CDP).

CDPs pull customer data from multiple sources, clean it up and combine it to create a single customer profile. That unified profile is then made available to marketing and business systems to improve the customer experience.

For the past 12 months, I've been watching the CDP space closely and have talked to a dozen CDP vendors. I believe that every organization will need a CDP (although most organizations don't realize it yet).

Why AgilOne?

According to independent research firm The CDP Institute, CDPs are a part of a rapidly growing software category that is expected to exceed $1 billion in revenue in 2019. While the CDP market is relatively new and small, a plethora of CDPs exist in the market today.

One of the reasons we really liked AgilOne is their machine learning capabilities - they will give our customers a competitive advantage. AgilOne supports machine learning models that intelligently segment customers and predict customer behaviors (e.g. when a customer is likely to purchase something). This allows for the creation and optimization of next-best action models to optimize offers and messages to customers on a 1:1 basis.

For example, lululemon, one of the most popular brands in workout apparel, collects data across a variety of online and offline customer experiences, including in-store events and website interactions, commerce transactions, email marketing, and more. AgilOne helped them integrate all those systems and create unified customer data profiles. This unlocked a lot of data that was previously siloed. Once lululemon better understood its customers' behaviors, they leveraged AgilOne's machine learning capabilities to increase attendance to local events by 25%, grow revenue from digital marketing campaigns by 10-15%, and increase site visits by 50%.

Another example is TUMI, a manufacturer of high-end suitcases. TUMI turned to AgilOne and AI to personalize outbound marketing (like emails, push notifications and one-to-one chat), smarten its digital advertising strategy, and improve the customer experience and service. The results? TUMI sent 40 million fewer emails in 2017 and made more money from them. Before AgilOne, TUMI's e-commerce revenue decreased. After they implemented AgilOne, it increased sixfold.

Fundamentally improving the customer experience

Having a great customer experience is more important than ever before - it's what sets competitors apart from one another. Taxis and Ubers both get people from point A to B, but Uber's customer experience is usually superior.

Building a customer experience online used to be pretty straightforward; all you needed was a simple website. Today, it's a lot more involved.

The real challenge for most organizations is not to redesign their website with the latest and greatest JavaScript framework. No, the real challenge is to drive relevant customer experiences across all the different channels - including web, mobile, social, email and voice - and to make those customer experiences highly relevant.

I've long maintained that the two fundamental building blocks to delivering great digital experiences are (1) content and (2) user data. This is consistent with the diagram I've been using in presentations and on my blog for many years where "user profile" and "content repository" represent two systems of record (though updated for the AgilOne acquisition).

A diagram that shows organizations need both good user data and good content to deliver relevant digital experiences.

To drive results, wrangling data is not optional

To dramatically improve customer experiences, organizations need to understand their customers: what they are interested in, what they purchased, when they last interacted with the support organization, how they prefer to consume information, etc.

But as an organization's technology stack grows, user data becomes siloed within different platforms:

A diagram that illustrates how user data is siloed within different platforms, including web, email marketing, commerce, and CRM

When an organization doesn't have a 360º view of its customers, it can't deliver a great experience to its customers. We have all interacted with a help desk person that didn't know what you recently purchased, is asking you questions you've answered multiple times before, or isn't aware that you already got some help troubleshooting through social media.

Hence, the need for integrating all your backend systems and creating a unified customer profile. AgilOne addresses this challenge, and has helped many of the world's largest brands understand and engage better with their customers.

A diagram that shows how user data is unified with AgilOne across web, email marketing, commerce, social media, and CRM.

Acquia's strategy and vision

It's easy to see how AgilOne is an important part of Acquia's vision to deliver the industry's only open digital experience platform. Together, with Drupal, Lift and Mautic, AgilOne will allow us to redefine the customer experience stack. Everything is based on Open Source and open APIs, and designed from the ground up to make it easier for marketers to create relevant, personal campaigns across a variety of channels.

A diagram shows how Acquia solutions unify experience creation, content and user data across different platforms.

Welcome to the team, AgilOne! You are a big part of Acquia's future.

11 Dec 2019 12:56pm GMT

Philip Van Hoof: Jeff Hoeyberghs laat een scheet

Het land in crisis: alle hoofdredacteuren van het land schrijven opiniestukken!

Honderden vrouwen naar de rechtbank. Christine Mussche fantaseert zich al rijk: driehonderd keer een factuur van een paar duizend Euro! Dat is een villa. Dat zal vast een vruchtgebruik worden. Want haar kuuroord voor misnoegde vrouwen kan nadien nog omgetoverd worden in een sauna- en massagesalon of een heus bedevaartsoord voor het Belgisch feminisme.

Met wat mevrouw de advocaat er waarschijnlijk aan gaat verdienen hadden we er ook een begrotingstekort van een gemiddeld groot dorp mee kunnen oplossen, er een school of een typisch gemeentelijk zwembad mee kunnen bouwen.

Meanwhile: we hebben ook al maanden geen regering. Nobody cares.

11 Dec 2019 10:31am GMT

10 Dec 2019

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Wouter Verhelst: GR 2019 002

Just sent in my vote. After carefully considering what I consider to be important, and reading all the options, I ended up with 84312756.

There are two options that rule out any compromise position; choice 1, "Focus on systemd", essentially says that anything not systemd is unimportant and we should just drop it. At the same time, choice 6, "support for multiple init systems is required", essentially says that you have to keep supporting other systems no matter what the rest of the world is doing lalala I'm not listening mom he's stealing my candy again.

Debian has always been a very diverse community; as a result, historically, we've provided a wide range of valid choices to our users. The result of that is that some of our derivatives have chosen Debian to base their very non-standard distribution on. It is therefore, to me, no surprise that Devuan, the very strongly no-systemd distribution, was based on Debian and not Fedora or openSUSE.

Personally I consider this variety in our users to be a good thing, and something to treasure; so any option that essentially throws that away, like choice 1, is not something I could live with. At the same time, the world has evolved, and most of our users do use systemd these days, which does provide a number of features over and above the older sysvinit system. Ignoring that fact, like option 6 does, is unreasonable in today's world.

So neither of those two options are acceptable to me.

That just leaves the other available options. All of those accept the fact that systemd has become the primary option, but differ in the amount of priority given to alternate options. The one outlier is option 5; it tries to give general guidance on portability issues, rather than commenting on the systemd situation specifically. While I can understand that desire, I don't agree with it, so it definitely doesn't get first position for me. At the same time, I don't think it's a terrible option, in that it still provides an opinion that I agree with. All in all, it barely made the cutoff above further discussion -- but really only barely so.

How did you vote?

10 Dec 2019 9:55am GMT

06 Dec 2019

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Xavier Mertens: BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #3

It's a classic issue for BotConf attendees, the last day is always a little bit stronger due to the social event organized every Thursday night. This year, we are in the French area where good wines are produced and the event took place at the "Cité du Vin". The night was short but I was present at the first talk! Ready as usual!

The first talk was "End-to-end Botnet Monitoring with Automated Config Extraction and Emulated Network Participation" by Kevin O'Reilly and Keith Jarvis. Sometimes, you hesitate to attend the first conference of the day due to a lack of motivate and you have to force yourself.

Today, it really deserved to wake up on time to attend this wonderful talk. It started with a comparison of two distinct approaches to analyze malware samples: emulator vs. sandbox. For a sandbox, you provide a sample and results can be used as input for an emulator: C2, IPs, encryption keys, etc… (and vice-versa). The next part of the talk was dedicated to CAPE ("Config And Payload Extraction") which is a fork of Cuckoo but with many decoding features that help to unpack and analyze via the browser. It has an API monitor, a debugger, a dumper, import reconstructor, etc. Many demos were performed. I'll definitively install it to replace my old Cuckoo instance! The project is here.

The next talk was presented by Suguru Ishimaru, Manabu Niseki and Hiroaki Ogawa: "Roaming Mantis: A melting pot of Android bots". This campaign started in Japan in 2018 and compromised residentials routers. Classic attacks: DNS settings were changed to redirect victims to rogue websites that… delivered malware samples! The talk covered malware samples that were used in the campaign:

For each of them, the malware was analyzed using the same way: how was it delivered, compromization, connections with the C2. The relation between them? They used the same technique to steal money. The money laundering process was also reviewed.

After a welcome coffee break,"The Cereals Botnet" was presented by Robert Neumann and Gergely Eberhardt. This time, no Android, no Windows but… NASes! (storage devices). This makes it a pretty unique botnet of approximatively 10K bots. The target was mainly D-Link NAS devices (consumer models).

They started to explain how the NAS was compromized using a vulnerability in a CGI script. To better understand how it worked, they simply connected a NAS on the wild Internet (note: don't try this at home!) and were able to observe the behavior of the attacker (unusual HTTP request, outgoing traffic and suspicious processes. The exploit was via the SMS notification system in system_mgr.cgi. Once compromized, there was also a backdoor installed, many software components (a VPN client) and persistence was implemented too. I like the way the bot communicated with the C2: Via a feed RSS! Easy! Finally they explained that the vulnerability was patched by the vendor (years later!) but many devices remain unpatched…

The next talk was the result of a student's research who tried to develop a tool to improve the generation of YARA rules. "YARA-Signator: Automated Generation of Code-based YARA Rules" presented by Felix Bilstein and Daniel Plohmann.

No need to present YARA. A fact is that most public rules (73%) are based on text strings but code-based rules are nice: they are robust, harder to circumvent by attackers and easier to automate but… not manually! A tool can be used for this purpose: YARA-Signator. The approach was to create signatures based on families from Malpedia. First, they explained how the tool works then the results. Interesting if you're a big fan of YARA. The code is here.

After the lunch, the scheduled talk was "Using a Cryptographic Weakness for Malware Traffic Clustering and IDS Rule Generation" by Matthijs Bomhoff and Saskia Hoogma. This is kind of talk that I'm fear of after a nice lunch… The idea of the talk was to explain that bad encryption implementations by attackers can be used to track them.

There was no coffee break foreseen in this afternoon, so we continued with three talks in a row. "Zen: A Complex Campaign of Harmful Android Apps" by Lukasz Siewierski. A common question related to malware samples is: Are all apps are coming from the same author (or group?). Lukasz explained different techniques called "Zen" that perform malicious activities:

It was a review of another Android malware…

Martijn Grooten continues with "Malspam is Different Spam". Martijn explained that, if spam is not a new topic, it remains a common infection vector. Why some emails are more likely to pass through our filters? A few words about spam-filtering, we rely on:

Some emails go to the sam traps and results are sent to the spam filter (which can also update itself). Spam scales badly. Then, Martijn showed some better examples that have chances to not be blocked.

Finally, the conference ended with "Demystifying Banking Trojans from Latin America" by Juraj Hornák, Jakub Soucek and Martin Jirkal. They presented the LATAM banking landscape (targetting Spanish & Portuguese speaking people) with malware. They explained the techniques used by the different malware families with the final goal to see the relations between them:

I like the "easter egg and human error" part where they explained some mistakes make by the attackers like… keeping a command in the code to spawn a calc.exe 😉

This edition could be called the "Android Malware Edition" seeing the number of presentations related to Android! (Like we had the "DGA Edition" a few years ago). This wrap-up closes these three days of BotConf 2019! Here are some stats provided by the organization:

As usual, they also disclosed the location of the 2020 edition: we will be back to Nantes!

[The post BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #3 has been first published on /dev/random]

06 Dec 2019 5:34pm GMT

05 Dec 2019

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Xavier Mertens: BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #2

The second day is over. Here is my daily wrap-up. Today was a national strike day in France and a lot of problems were expected with public transports. However, the organization provided buses to help attendees to travel between the city center and the venue. Great service as always 😉

After some coffee, the day started with another TLP:AMBER talk: "Preinstalled Gems on Cheap Mobile Phones" by Laura Guevara. So, to respect the TLP, nothing will be disclosed. Just keep in mind that if you use cheap Android smartphones, you get what you paid for…

Then, Brian Carter @
presented "Honor Among Thieves: How Stealer Malware Fuels an Underground Economy of Compromised Accounts". It started with facts: Attackers make mistakes and leak online information like panels, configuration files or logs. You can find this information just via a browser, no need to hack them back.

Brian's research goals were:

But, very important, we cannot commit crimes, not contribute to malicious activities or harm victims of malware. The golden rule here is: Be ethic! Research had also limitations, it's impossible to collect everything and data may not be representative! What was the collection process? Terabytes of data, 1M stealer logs archives, many panels, builders, chat logs, forum posts, and market listings. Again, "stolen data" were collected from ethical sources like VT, shares, open directories. Brian also commented on the economics of stealers: The market is relatively small today and only a few criminals are successful in their business and stealer malware is low-volume. Here is an example of prices:

Then, when you collected so much data, what to do with a huge amount of data? Warn users if they are compromized, research adversaries, develop countermeasures, take down? This was an interesting talk.

The next speakers were Alexander Eremin and Alexey Shulmin who presented "Bot with Rootkit: Update and Mine!". The research started with a "nice" sample that installed a Microsoft patch. Cool isn't? Of course, the dropper was obfuscated and, once decoded, it used the classic VirtualAlloc() and GetModuleHandleA() to decrypt the data.

When they were able to extract strings, they continued to investigate and discovered interesting behaviors. The first one, the develop was nice enough to leave debugging comments via a write_to_log() function. The malware checked the OS version, the keyboard layout and created a MUTEX. Until now, nothing fancy, but the malware also installed a Microsoft patch, if not already installed: KB3033929. Why? The patch was required to allow check_crypt32_version() and support of SHA-2! Then, they explained how C2 communications are performed, based on HTTP and encrypted using RC4 and Base64 encoding. Then, a rootkit is installed to finally deploy a cryptominer. The rootkit is like Necurs and uses IOCTL-like registry keys. Example of commands supported:

After a caffeine refill, it was the turn of Tom Ueltschi who presented "DESKTOP-Group - Tracking a Persistent Threat Group (using Email Headers)". Tom is a regular speaker at Botconf and always provides good content. This talk was tagged as TLP:GREEN. Good idea: he will try to make a "white" version of his slides as soon as possible. Remember that TLP:GREEN means "Limited disclosure, restricted to the community."

Before the lunch break, two short presentations were scheduled. "The Bagsu Banker Case" by Benoît Ancel. Sorry, TLP:AMBER again.

The following talk was "Tracking Samples on a Budget" by <redacted>. It covered a personal project running for two years now which explained how to acquire a collection of malware samples… but being a student, with no budget! What are the (free) sources available? Open-source repositories, honeypots, pivots, feed, sandboxes, existing malware zoo like malshare or malc0de, etc. You can run also your own honeypot but it's difficult to deploy a lot of them. The talk covered the components put in place to crawl the web, how to avoid some stupid limitations that you'll face. Then comes the post-processing:

A good idea is also to search recursively for open directories that remain a goldmine. Here is the sample tracking lifecycle as implemented:

Acquire URL > Crawl > Download > Postprocessing > Store > Pivot

What about the results? Running for 2 years, 270K unique samples have been discovered, 25% of them not on VT, 600GB of data collected, 78% of the samples have 5+ score on VT. I had the opportunity to talk later with the speaker, it's a great project… The code is running fine for 2 years and just does the job! Amazing project!

After the lunch, we had another restricted presentation (sorry, interesting content can't be disclosed) - TLP:RED - by Thomas Dubier and Christophe Rieunier: "Botnet Tracking Story: from Spam Mail to Money Laundering".

The next talk was "Finding Neutrino Botnet: from Web Scans to Botnet Architecture" by Kirill Shipulin and Alexey Goncharov. This research started with some interesting hits on a honeypot. They adapted the honeypot to respond positively and mimick a webshell. The scan was brute-forcing different webshells with a strange command: "die(md5(Ch3ck1ng))". The malware they found had a classic behavior: check if already installed, exfiltrate system information and download/execute a payload (a cryptominer in this case). It implemented persistence via WMI, was fileless and also killed its competitors.

The next malware to be analyzed was BackSwap: "BackSwap Malware Campaign Evolution" by Carlos Rubio Ricote and David Pastor Sanz. This malware was found by eSet in May 2018 via trojanized apps (OllyDbg, Filezilla, ZoomIt, …). It used PIC - Position Independent Code and used shellcodes hidden in BMP images (see the DKMC tool). They explained how the malware worked, how the configuration was encrypted and, once decoded, what were the parameters like the statistics URL, the C2, User-Agent touse, and the injection delimiter. They decrypted the web inject and explained the technique used: via the navigation bar or the developer console. Then, they reviewed some discovered campaigns targetting banks in Poland, Spain.

After the afternoon coffee break, Mathieu Tartare came on stage to talk about "Winnti Arsenal: Brand-new Supplies". WINNIT is a group that is often cited in the news and that compromized multiple organizations (telco, editors, healthcare, gambling, etc…) They are specialized in supply-chain attacks. They look to be active since 2013 (first public report) and in 2017… there was the famous CCleaner case! In 2018, the gaming industry was compromised. The 1st part of this talk covered this. The technique used by the malware was CRT patching. A function is called to unpack/execute the malicious code before returning to the original code. The payload was packed using a custom packer using RC4. The first stage is a downloader that gets its C2 config then gathers information about the victim's computer. Amongst them, the C: drive name and volume ID are exfiltrated. The 2nd stage will decrypt a payload that was encrypted using… the volume ID! Finally, a cryptominer is installed. Mathieu also covered two backdoors: PortReuse that works like a good old port-knocking. It sniffs the network traffic and waits for a specific magic packet. The second one was ShadowPad.

The last talk for today was "DFIR & Crisis Management - Post-mortems & Lessons Learned in the Pain from the Field" by Vincent Nguyen. He was involved in many security incidents and explained some interesting facts about them. How they worked, what they found (or not 😉 and also, very important, lessons learned to improve the IR process.

The scheduled ended with a set of lightning talks. 19 talks of 3 mins with lot of interesting information, tools, stories, etc.

[The post BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #2 has been first published on /dev/random]

05 Dec 2019 11:37pm GMT

Mattias Geniar: Set up a static IP address on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS server

If you're setting up an Ubuntu 18.04 LTS server, you might want to give it a static IP address instead of one assigned by your router over DHCP.

05 Dec 2019 12:00am GMT

04 Dec 2019

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Xavier Mertens: BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #1

Hello from Bordeaux, France where I'm attending the 7th edition (already!) of the BotConf security conference dedicated to fighting against botnets. After Nantes, Nancy, Paris, Lyon, Montpellier, Toulouse and now Bordeaux, their "tour de France" is almost completed. What will be the next location? I attended all the previous editions and many wrap-up's are available on this blog. So, let's start with the 2019 edition!

The conference was kicked off by Eric Freyssinet. This year, they received 73 submissions to the call for paper and 3 workshops (organized yesterday). The selection process was difficult and, according to Eric, we can expect interesting talks.

After the introduction, the first talk was 'DeStroid - Fighting String Encryption in Android Malware" presented by Daniel Baier. He worked with Martin Lambertz on this topic.

Analyzing Android malware is not that hard because most developers use the standard API and applications can easily be decompiled. So, they have to use alternative techniques to obfuscate their interesting content. One of these is the use of encryption to hide strings. They are decrypted at run time. As you can imagine, doing this process manually is a pain. To test the DeStroid tool, they use the data set provided by Malpedia (also presented at BotConf preciously). They detected three techniques used to encrypt strings: by using a string repository, by passing strings to a decryption routine and via native libraries. Each technique was reviewed by Daniel. From a statistics point of view, 52% of the test Android samples use strings encryption and 56% of them use the "direct pass" method. The DeStroid tool was also compared to other solutions like JMD, Deobfuscator or Dex-Oracle. The tool is available here if you're interested.

The next speaker was Marco Riccardi who presented "Golden Chickens: Uncovering A Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS) Provider and Two New Threat Actors Using It". The talk was flagged as TLP:AMBER so I won't disclose details about it. Just the same remark as usual which this kind of "sensitive" slides, can you trust a room full of 500 people? I like a slide (without any confidential information) that explained how to NOT do attribution:

IR > Found sample > Use technique "X" > Google for "technique X" > Found references to "China" > We are attacked by China > Case closed

The next talk focused on the gaming industry. I'm definitely not a game addict, so I'm always curious about what happens in this field. Basically, like any domain, if some profit can be made, bad guys are present! Making huge profits and targeting millions of players, it is normal to see attacks targetting big names like Counter-Strike. Ivan Korolev and Igor Zdobnov presented "Unrevealing the Architecture Behind the Counter-Strike 1.6 Botnet: Zero-Days and Trojans". Do you remember that Counter-Strike was born in 1999? What's the business behind CS 1.6? People want to play with more and more people. Servers need to be "promoted" to attract more gamers. "Boosting" is the technique to attract new players. If it can be performed with good & clean techniques, it can also be performed via malware. Ivan & Igor reviewed the different vulnerabilities found in the CS client and how it was (ab)used to build the botnet. Vulnerabilities were found in the parsing of SAV files (saved game files), BMP files. By exploiting vulnerabilities in the game, the client becomes part of a botnet. A rogue server can issue commands to a client like:

In the next part of the presentation, the trojan Belonard was described.
It is active since 05/2017 and constantly use new exploits & modules. Finally, they explained the take-down process.

After the lunch breach, the keynote was presented by Gilles Schwoerer and Michal Salat. Michal is working for an AV vendor and Gilles is working for the French law enforcement services. Their keynote was called "Putting an end to Retadup".

What is Retadup? Michal started the technical part and explained the facts around this malware: It's a worm that affected 1.3M+ computers via malicious LNK files. It's not only a botnet but also a platform malware being used by others to distribute more malware through it. The original version was developed in AutoIt and has persistence, extraction of the victim's details. It also implements a lot of anti-analysis techniques. Communications with the C2 is performed via a hardcoded list of domains and simple HTTP GET request, Base64 or hex-encoded. When the malware was discovered and analyzed, the C2 was found to be located in France. That was the second part of the keynote, presented by Gilles who explained the take-down process. Their plan was to present an empty update to the bots to make them inactive. This method did not prevent the infection but was less dangerous for the end-user. US Agencies were also active in the process to redirect the DNS to the rogue C2 server deployed by the French police. This keynote was a great example of collaboration between a vendor and LE services.

The next presentation was about an "Android Botnet Analysis - Shaoye Botnet" by Min-Chun Tsai, Jen-Ho Hsiao and Ding-You Hsiao. Like the previous talk, they did a review of another malware targeting Android devices. In Chinese, "Shaoye" means "Young master". They analyzed two versions of the malware. The first one used DNS hijacking in residential routers to redirect victims to a rogue web site. The second version used compromised websites to spread malware. In the first, a fake Facebook app was installed and, in the second version, a fake Sagawa express application (Sagawa is a major transportation company in Japan). The malware samples were completely analyzed to explain how they work.

After a welcome coffee break, a very interesting talk was presented by Piotr Bialczak and Adrian Korczak: "Tracking Botnets with Long Term Sandboxing". The idea behind the research was about improving the analysis of bot in a sandbox for a long period of time. We know that reverse engineering malware costs a lot of time and we use sandboxes as much as possible. The biggest constraint is that time allowed to execute, usually a few minutes. Malware developers know this and make their malware wait for a long period of time (> sandbox timeout) but increase the chances that the sandbox will stop by itself. They created a "LTS" - "Long Term Sandboxing" System that is optimized to allow a bot to run for a long time but without the technical constraints. Based on Qemu and a system of external snapshots combined with other tools like an ELK stack and Moloch, they are able to reduce the CPU resource, network bandwidth, etc. They analyzed 20 families of well-known botnets and showed interest information they learned at the network level, SMTP traffic or DGA. For example, it was possible to detect unusual protocols, traffic to non-standard ports).

The next talk was "Insights and Trends in the Data-Center Security Landscape" by Daniel Goldberg and Ophir Harpaz. There were some changes but I covered this talk last week at DeepSec (see my wrap-up here).

Then, Dimitris Theodorakis and Ryan Castellucci presented "The Hunt for 3ve". Here again another family of malware that was dissected. This one targeted online ads. Yes, ads remain a business. In a few numbers: 1.8M+ infected computers, 3B+ ad requests/day, 10K+ spoofed domains, 60K+ accounts. Eve used three techniques that were reviewed by Dimitris and Ryan:

Here again, after the technical details, they explained how the take-down process.

Finally, the first day ended with "Guildma: Timers Sent from Hell" presented by Adolf Streda, Luigino Camastra, and Jan Vojtešek. This time was analyzed malware was not only a RAT but also a spyware, password stealer and banking malware. The malware was spread through spam campaigns and was targeting mainly Brazil (at a first stage) then they targeted more countries.

That the end of day 1! Many botnets were covered, always with the same approach: hunting, find samples, analyze them, learn how they work and organize the take-down. See you tomorrow for the second wrap-up!

[The post BotConf 2019 Wrap-Up Day #1 has been first published on /dev/random]

04 Dec 2019 9:00pm GMT

01 Dec 2019

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Dries Buytaert: Teaching my son how the web works

For the first time, I taught my twelve year old son some HTML and CSS. This morning after breakfast we sat down and created a basic HTML page with some simple styling.

I explained to him that is the most powerful HTML tag of them all ...

It was a special experience for both of us. It looks like I sparked his interest as later he asked where he can learn about different HTML tags. I loved that he shared an interest to learn more.

But it also made me think that rather than just teach him HTML and CSS syntax, I want to help him develop an appreciation for how the web works. I'll have to think about how to best explain concepts like HTTP, DNS, IP addresses, and maybe even TCP.

01 Dec 2019 7:52pm GMT

Mattias Geniar: cron.weekly is coming back!

Once upon a time I wrote a weekly newsletter on Linux, open source & web development.

01 Dec 2019 12:00am GMT

30 Nov 2019

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Frank Goossens: Autoptimize assets: 404-s nevermore?

So for those using AO who are seeing occasional 404's on AO'd resources and (somewhat) into code; here's a GitHub commit that might interest you;


(More later, gotta run now)

Possibly related twitterless twaddle:

30 Nov 2019 8:05pm GMT

29 Nov 2019

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Xavier Mertens: DeepSec 2019 Wrap-Up Day #2

Here we go for the second wrap-up! DeepSec is over, flying back tomorrow to Belgium. My first choice today was to attend: "How To Create a Botnet of GSM-devices" by Aleksandr Kolchanov. Don't forget that GSM devices are not only "phones". Aleksandr covered nice devices like alarm systems, electric sockets, smart-home controllers, industrial controllers, trackers and… smartwatches for kids!

They all have features like to send notifications via SMS, call pre-configured numbers but also be configured or polled via SMS. Example of attacks? Brute-force the PIN code, spoof calls, use "hidden" SMS commands. Ok, but what are the reasons to hack them? We have direct attacks (unlock the door, steal stuff) or spying: abuse the built-in microphone. Attacks on the property are also interesting: switch off electric devices (a water pump, a heating system). Also terrorism or political actions? Financial attacks (call or send SMS to premium numbers). Why a botnet? The get some money! Just use it to send huge amounts of SMS but also to DoS or for political/terrorism actions: Can you imagine thousands of alarms at the same time. Thanks to powerful marketing, people buy them so we have many devices in the wild:

After the introduction, Aleksandr explained how he performed attacks against different devices. It's easy to hack them but the real challenge is to find targets. How? You can do a mass scanning and call all numbers but it will cost money and some operators will detect you ("Why are your calling xxx times per day?") How to search without making a call? They are web services provided by some operators that help to get info about used numbers, they are open API, databases, leaked data, etc… Once you have enough valid devices, it's time to build the botnet:

Scan > Identify > Attack > Change settings > Profit!

It was an interesting talk to kick off the day!

The next talk was about… pacemakers! Wait, everything has been said about those devices, right? A lot of material has already been published. The big story was in 2017 when a big flaw was discovered. The talk presented by Tobias Zillner was called "500.000 Recalled Pacemakers, 2 Billion $ Stock Value Loss - The Story Behind".

When you need to assess such medical devices, where to get one? On a second-hand webshop! Just have a look at dotmed.com, their stock of medical devices is awesome! The eco-system tested was: pacemakers / programmers/home monitors and the "Merlin Net" alias "the cloud". The first attack vector covered by Tobias was the new generation of devices that use wireless technologies (SDR), low power, short-range (2M) - 401-406Mhz). How to find technical specs? Just check the FCC-ID and search for it. Google remains always your best friend. The vulnerabilities found were an energy depletion attack (draining the battery) and a… crash of the pacemaker! The next target was the "Merlin@Home" device which is a home monitoring system. They are easy to find on eBay:

Just perform an attack like against any embedded Linux device: Connect a console, boot it, press a key to get the bootloader, change the boot command add "init=/bin/bash" like any Linux and boot in single-user mode! Once inside the box, it's easy to find a lot of data left by developers (source code, SSH keys, encryption keys, source code, … The second part of the talk was dedicated to the full-disclosure process.

After a short coffee break, Fabio Nigi presented "IPFS As a Distributed Alternative to Logs Collection". The idea behind this talk was to try to solve a classic headache for people who are involved in log management tasks. This can quickly become a nightmare due to the ever-changing topologies, the number of assets, amount of logs to collect and process. Storage is a pain to manage.

So, Fabio had the idea to use IPFS. IPFS means "Interplanetary file system" and is a P2P distributed file system that helps to store files in multiple locations. He introduced the tool, how it works (it look interesting, I wasn't aware of it). Then he demonstrated how to interconnect it with a log collection solution using different tools like IPFS GW, React, Brig or Minerva. It's an interesting approach, however, the project is still in the development phase (as stated on the website)…

There were many interesting talks today and, with a dual-track conference, it's not always easy to choose the one that will be the most entertaining or interesting. My next choice was "Extracting a 19-Year-Old Code Execution from WinRAR" by Nadav Grossman.

WinRAR is a well-known tool to handle many archive formats. As the tool is very popular, it's a great target for attackers because it is installed on many computers! After a very long part about fuzzing (the techniques, tools like WinAFL), Nadav explained how the vulnerability was found. It was located in a DLL used to process ACE files. Many details were disclosed and, if you are interested, there is a blog post available here. Note that since the vulnerability has been found and disclosed, the support of ACE archives has been removed from the last versions of WinRAR!

After the lunch break, I attended "Setting up an Opensource Threat Detection Program" by Lance Buttars (Ingo Money). This was an interesting talk about tools that you can deploy to protect your web services but also counterattack the bad guys. Many tools are used in Lance's arsenal (ModSecurity, Reverse proxies, Fail2ban, etc…)

Lance also explained what honeypots are and the different types of data that you collect: domains, files, ports, SQL tables or DB. For each type, he gave some examples. Note that "active defense" is not allowed in many countries!

And the day continued with "Once Upon a Time in the West - A story on DNS Attacks" by Valentina Palacín and Ruth Esmeralda Barbacil. They reviewed well-known DNS attack techniques (DNS tunneling, hijacking, and poisoning) then they presented a timeline of major threats that affected DNS services and that abused the protocols like:

For each of them, they applied the Mitre ATT&CK framework. Nothing really new but a good recap which concludes that DNS is a key protocol and that it must be carefully controlled.

The two next talks focused more on penetration testing: "What's Wrong with WebSocket APIs? Unveiling Vulnerabilities in WebSocket APIs"
by Mikhail Egorov. He already published a lot of researches around WebSocket and started with a review of the protocol. Then he described different types of attacks. The second one was "Abusing Google Play Billing for Fun and Unlimited Credits!" by Guillaume Lopes. Guillaume explained how Google provides a payment framework for developers. Like the previous talk, it started with a review of the framework then how it was abused. He tested 50 apps, 29 were vulnerable to this attack. All developers were contacted and only 1 replied!

To close the day, Robert Sell presented "Techniques and Tools for Becoming an Intelligence Operator". Open-source intelligence can be used in many fields: forensics, research, etc. Robert defines it as "Information that is hard to find but freely available".

He explained how to prepare yourself to perform investigations, which tools to use, network connections, creation of profiles on social network and many more. The list of tools and URLs provided by Robert was amazing! Don't forget that good OpSec is important. If you're excited to search for information about your target, (s)he won't probably be as excited as you! Also, keep in mind, that all techniques used can also be used against you!

That's all Folks! DeepSec is over! Thanks again to the organizers for a great event!

[The post DeepSec 2019 Wrap-Up Day #2 has been first published on /dev/random]

29 Nov 2019 8:00pm GMT

28 Nov 2019

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Xavier Mertens: DeepSec 2019 Wrap-Up Day #1

Hello from Vienna where I'm at the DeepSec conference. Initially, I was scheduled to give my OSSEC training but it was canceled due to a lack of students. Anyway, the organizers proposed to me to join (huge thanks to them!). So, here is a wrap-up of the first day!

After the short opening ceremony by René Pfeiffer, the DeepSec organizer, the day started with a keynote. The slot was assigned to Raphaël Vinot and Quinn Norton: "Computer security is simple, the world is not".

I was curious based on the title but the idea was very interesting. Every day, as security practitioners, we deal with computers but we also have to deal with people that use a computer we are protecting! We have to take them into account. Based on different stories, Raphaël and Quinn gave their view of how to communicate with our users. First principle: Listen to them! Let them explain with their own words and shut up. Even if it's technically incorrect, they could have interesting information for us. The second principle is the following: If you don't listen to your users, you don't know how to make your job! The next principle is to learn how they work because you must adapt to them. More close to your users you are, the more you can understand the risks they are facing. Also, don't say "Do this, then this, …" but explain what is behind the action, why they have to do this. Don't go too technical if people don't ask details. Don't scare your users! The classic example is the motivated user that has to finish his/her presentation for tomorrow morning. She/he must transfer files to home but how? If you block all the classic file transfer services, be sure that the worst one will be used. Instead, promote a tool that you trust and that is reliable! Very interesting keynote!

The first regular talk was presented by Abraham Aranguren: "Chinese Police & Cloudpets". If you don't Cloudpets, have a look at this video. What could go wrong? A lot! The security of this connected toy was so bad that major resellers like Walmart or Amazon decided to stop selling it. It's a connected toy linked to mobile apps to exchange messages between parents and kids. Nice isn't it? But they made a lot of mistakes regarding the security of the products. Abraham reviewed them:

The next part of the talk was about mobile apps used by Chinese police to track people, especially the Muslim population in Xinjiang: IJOP & BXAQ. IJOP means "Integrated Joint Operations Platform" and is an application used to collect private information about people and to perform big data analysis. The idea is to collect unusual behaviors and report them to central services for further investigations. The app was analyzed, reverse-engineered and what they found is scaring. Collected data are:

The BXAQ app is a trojan that is installed even on tourists phones to collect "interesting" data about them:

After a welcomed coffee break, I came back to the same track to attend "Mastering AWS pen testing and methodology" by Ankit Giri. The idea behind this talk is to get a better idea about how to pentest an AWS environment.

The talk was full of tips & tricks but also references to tools. The idea is to start by enumerating the AWS accounts used by the platform as well as the services. To achieve this, you can use aws-inventory. Then check for CloudWatch, CloudTrail of BillingAlerts. Check the configuration of services being used. Make notes of services interacting with each other. S3 buckets are, of course, juicy targets. Another tool presented was S3SCanner. Then keep an eye on the IAM: how accounts are managed, what are the access rights, keys, roles. In this case, PMApper can be useful. EV2 virtual systems must be reviewed to find open ports, ingress/egress traffic, and their security groups! If you are interested in testing AWS environments, have a look at this arsenal. To complete the presentation, a demo of prowler was performed by Ankit.

Then Yuri Chemerkin presented "Still Secure. We Empower What We Harden Because We Can Conceal". To be honest with you, I did not understand the goal of the presentation, the speaker was not very engaging and many content was in Russian… Apparently, while discussing with other people who attended the talk, it was related to the leak of information from many tools and how to use them in security testing…

The next one was much more interesting: "Android Malware Adventures: Analyzing Samples and Breaking into C&C" presented by Kürşat Oğuzhan Akıncı & Mert Can Coşkuner. The talk covered the hunt for malware in the mobile apps ecosystem, mainly Android (>70% of new malware are targeting Android phones). Even if Google implemented checks for all apps submitted to the Play store, the solution is not bullet-proof and, like on Windows systems, malware developers have techniques to bypass sandbox detection… They explained how they spotted a campaign targetting Turkey. They analyzed the malware and successfully exploited the C2 server which was vulnerable to:

In the end, they uncovered the campaign, they hacked back (with proper authorization!), they restored stolen data and prevented further incidents. Eight threat actors were arrested.

My next choice was again a presentation about the analysis of a known campaign: "The Turtle Gone Ninja - Investigation of an Unusual Crypto-Mining Campaign" presented by Ophir Harpaz, Daniel Goldberg.

The campaign was "NanshOu" and it's not a classic one. Ophir & Daniel gave many technical details about the malware, how it infected thousands of MSSQL servers to deploy a crypto-miner. Why servers? Because they require less interaction, they have better uptime, they have lot of resources and are maintained by poor IT teams ;-). The infection path was: scanning for MSSQL servers, brute force them, enable execution of code (via xp-cmdshell()), drop files and execute them.

Then, Tim Berghoff and Hauke Gierow presented "The Daily Malware Grind" - Looking Beyond the Cybers". They performed a review of the threat landscape, ransomware, crypto-miners, RATs, etc… Interesting fact: old malware remains active.

Lior Yaari talked about a hot topic these days: "The Future Is Here - Modern Attack Surface On Automotive". Do you know that IDS are coming to connected cars automotive today? It's a fact, cars are ultra-connected today and it will be worse in the future. If, in the year 2005, cars had an AUX connected and USB ports, today they have GPS, 4G, BT, WiFi and a lot of telemetrics data sent to the manufacturer! By 2025, cars will be part of clouds, be connected to PLC, talk to electric chargers, gas stations, etc. Instead of using ODB2 connections, we will use regular apps to interact with them. Lior gave multiple examples of potential issues that people will face with their connected cards. A great topic!

To close the first day, I attended "Practical Security Awareness - Lessons Learnt and Best Practices" by Stefan Schumacher. He explained in detail why awareness trainings are not always successful.

It's over for today! Stay tuned for the next wrap-up tomorrow! I'm expecting a lot from some presentations!

[The post DeepSec 2019 Wrap-Up Day #1 has been first published on /dev/random]

28 Nov 2019 11:09pm GMT

27 Nov 2019

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Mattias Geniar: VirtualBox: Failed to open/create the internal network 'HostInterfaceNetworking-en0' (VERR_SUPDRV_COMPONENT_NOT_FOUND)

There's an annoying little bug in VirtualBox that can cause your network config in the VM to become invalid after a reboot of your host Mac.

27 Nov 2019 12:00am GMT

Mattias Geniar: Auto-start VirtualBox VMs (headless) after reboot on Mac OSX

I've got a Mac Mini at home to act as a server & desktop. On it there are several Virtual Box VMs, among which a a pihole to block unwanted requests via DNS.

27 Nov 2019 12:00am GMT